• <menu id="yyk8s"></menu>
  • <samp id="yyk8s"></samp>
  • <xmp id="yyk8s">
  •  

    您現在的位置: 科技哲學教研室 >> STS >> 學生園地 >> 正文

    [圖文]陳豫:“兩種文化”在今天

    作者:陳豫    文章來源:本站原創    點擊數:    更新時間:2011-3-10

      

     

    “兩種文化”在今天

                      ——讀C.P.斯諾《兩種文化》

    中國人民大學信息學院  陳豫

    斯諾早在1959年回母校劍橋所做的演講上就提出了這樣的問題:科學文化與人文文化互不相容,科學家與自稱“知識分子”的人文主義者互相鄙夷,彼此分裂,缺失了交流碰撞、產生創造性火花的突破機會,導致社會前進的步伐被阻塞。

    斯諾做出這番講演的背景是20世紀五十年代的英國,傳統的知識分子依舊在社會輿論、政治經濟地位上占據主導,斯諾如此演說也有為科學家登高疾呼爭取地位的意味在里面;而50年之后的今天,中國的情況亦可擔憂,只是理工科由于其實用性占據了主導,人文學科處于低態勢。由于斯諾當時對他所提的科學文化與人文文化并沒有很清晰的定義,在此我根據演講的內容、科學哲學的理論發展以及中國現在的背景,暫且把二者理解為“自然科學的文化”與“人文科學的文化”,按照中國現在的教育模式來看的話,即為通俗意義上所說的理工科和文科。

    “兩種文化”理論在世界上游走了50年,從西半球傳到了東半球,我身邊卻依然有這樣的聲音:清華的同學私底下滿不在乎地說,“我都不知道學文科的人在學什么”;某文科學院的教授在公開場合指出,“理工科的學生思維方式太具象了,我們應該抽象概括地來看問題”。不理解、不友好、看不慣,二者間的隔閡依舊很大,“兩種文化”的論斷在今天看來依舊相當有說服力,畢竟都是我們親身可感親眼可見的事物。且不說斯諾的分類是否絕對正確(他在演說中也指出了一分為二的辯證法的不完善性),他的貢獻在于發現自然科學與人文的沖突,發現這種沖突與社會發展、國家財富間的關系,揭示出真正有意義的問題,引發人們的關注、思考、爭論、探索。我們可以說還有第三種文化(按照科學的分類則還有社會科學文化),可以說斯諾對科學過于樂觀,但不能否定他的貢獻,沒有他的言論,對于這個問題的研究也就無從推廣。

    那么,為何兩種無高下之分、本該互補互助的文化間會產生這樣的矛盾?斯諾認為有兩個原因:一是狂熱的教育專業化,二是社會形態的具體化,并把解決的方法重點放在了教育(主要是大中小學教育)改革上。提出一個問題的最終目的是要找出原因并且解決它。而這也是我認為斯諾做得不足的地方,我想這是因為50年的時間隔閡所帶來的社會生存環境的不同。

    首先我不否認教育對于文化導向的重要性。教育,特別是大中小學教育,滲透在每個人成長的每一階段,從而影響著整個社會。中國長期以來形成的基礎教育體制,就是從中學開始文理分科,延續到高等教育和其它教育領域中,這可以說是導致兩種文化之分裂的最明顯、最典型極端的表現。高中時,我的年段有10理科班和2個文科班,此種比例就是一大失衡。其中又有許多男生理科成績拔尖而語文英語慘不忍睹,在他們的世界中不要說“狄更斯被轉化成文學不可理解性的典型代表”(斯諾語),沒看過《紅樓夢》的也大有人在,因為考試不需要,因為他們不感興趣。如果放任自流,即使能成長為科學家,他們聽不懂人文文化也是正常的,而這種正常對于一個國家實則是一個極大的不幸。在哈佛,200210月的新一輪本科生課程改革便是一場典型的關于溝通“兩種文化”的努力。這場改革在現行分類結構的基礎上增加人文社會科學、生命科學和物理科學必修課,目標是使本科教育在深度和廣度上和傳統的人文和社會科學方面保持一致,又要普及前沿的自然科學知識,提高哈佛畢業生的科學素養。對一個人的教育培養若能文理并重,那么兩種文化在他身上交融,兩種思維方式在他的腦海里融會貫通,隔閡自消。

    而除了教育,我想還應重視各種言論的導向,包括學界爭論、社會輿論、通過媒體發出的聲音等等形式,這些因素對我們現代生活的影響已經遠遠高于斯諾時代。關于“兩種文化”的爭論與研究一直沒有停息,促進著理論的發展,但在實際社會中的影響并沒有達到理想的程度。我想,首先,在學界,爭論各方的分裂應該有所彌合,找到一個平衡點,對于如何認識科學、如何發展科學和應用科學的問題應有所共識,這樣才能在公眾中形成推廣的力量。其次,社會輿論對其發展及倡導應有所關注, 例如中國科學院信息技術科學部和技術科學部舉辦的第十七次技術科學論壇便是以科學·技術·人文為主題,可以報道、議論名家名言以期對公眾有所啟示。再次,電影、音樂、電視等媒介對思想的傳播能力正在大大提高,一些深刻優秀作品是能給人以哲學上的啟發的,尋找與創作探討這一問題的作品也能在很大程度上達到融合科學與人文的目的。

    其實最重要的是實現人們觀念上的轉變,讓人們認識到科學與人文在整個人類文化中的不可分割性。科學文化奠定立世之基,而人文文化確立為人之本。人文文化不以客觀規律為基石,則會事與愿違;科學文化不以人為本導向,則會迷失方向。偏向一極而指責另一極的任何行為都是沒有意義的。

    事實上,斯諾的“兩種文化”論是建立在50年前的英國背景之上,與我們的現實直接相關的文字已經很少了,而我們持續關注這一問題,是因為它在不同的時代可以有不同的內涵,可以能成為解決社會文化焦點問題的一種思考方向。然而除了關注,我們還應有所行動,捧起《老子》或者捧起《時間簡史》吧,從今天起,做一個科學素養與人文素養并重的人。

     

    參考文獻:

    1.     []CP.斯諾.兩種文化.陳克艱,秦小虎譯.上海科學技術出版社.2003

    2.     張家勇,張家智.新世紀哈佛大學本科生課程改革及啟示. 《比較教育研究》2006年01

    3.     劉兵.一場持續了半個世紀的戰爭及其導火索——斯諾的《兩種文化》.易文網.2004-11-11

    4.     江曉原.當代“兩種文化”沖突的意義——在科學與人文之間.《上海交通大學學報(哲學社會科學版)》 2003年05

    5.     兩代學者楊叔子、王飛躍暢談科學與人文文化交融. 寧波教科網. 2005-9-21

     

     


    課程動態

    教研室動態

    Copyright © 2010 Philosophy of Science and Technology,Renmin University of China All Rights Reserved.
    中國人民大學哲學院科技哲學教研室 版權所有 京ICP備10216924號
    湖北快三 2844n.com | feicai0357.com | www.911720.com | www.005966.com | vns1.vip | www.m80288.com | 85722.com | www.680955.com | www.679suncity.com | 8988rr.com | www.7817z.vip | 3301800.com | www.77803g.com | www.38200a.com | 0033d.cc | www.p32031.com | 99567i.com | www.297757.com | www.jinying28.com | 0099220.com | www.5854k.cc | www.hg3701.com | 876878k.com | www.96386l.com | www.696901.com | blr940.net | www.89777g.com | www.8494d.com | meishimat.com | www.7239v.com | www.13658017870.com | 7599pp.com | www.49956y.com | www.6455c.com | y68357.com | www.3552g.com | www.msc573.com | z15666.com | www.cp8014.cc | www.gdnmi.com | hc3389.com | www.816830.com | www.938a.cc | 4182b.com | www.507285.com | www.98888js.com | u2554.com | www.75538a.com | www.64566f.com | 38989o.com | 91709.com | www.2221107.com | www.58777q.com | 8547p.com | www.cp5658.cc | www.138cpl.com | t8705.com | jianwei.com | www.5350.vip | www.7893w50.com | 7686l.com | www.838552.com | www.sb5502.com | www.56733x.com | 11939.com | www.26163r.com | www.03543.com | y088.cc | www.36787e.com | www.amjs3456.com | www.hc8888.com | 88903636.com | 3938ii.com | www.9646b.com | www.666bu.com | 159666z.com | 063805.com | www.80065r.com | www.564949.com | 5443gg.com | 2418h.com | www.50064w.com | www.beb111.org | 8290z.com | bwin8y.com | www.3479j.com | www.727321.com | 2998h.com | 05078888.com | P35oo.com | www.bet353655.com | www.bc858.cc | 01365.com | js01.app | www.107658.com | www.8998799.com | www.1f888.com | 8905s.com | 5369q.com | www.399160.com | www.2418j.com | www.88399a.com | 22556b.com | 88993o.com | www.202909.com | www.004829.com | www.597567b.com | 66300vip27.com | 2257013.com | www.108382.com | www.78949f.com | www.16181q.com | www.00829x.com | 7555z.com | urmillionaire168.com | www.hc2388.com | www.97994b.com | www.xpj183.com | 2190l.com | 99151j.com | a997.com | www.570126.com | www.93gj02.com | www.27363v.com | www.67797f.com | 01885f.com | 3846vv.com | 99589o.net | www.1888ac.com | www.vnsr4567.com | www.msc860.com | www.pu1678.com | 38820011.com | 12742w.com | www.153328.com | www.99830.cc | www.56011n.com | www.10482.com | www.223456r.com | 3988722.com | 9958999.com | 44119193.com | www.312477.com | www.25688p.com | www.88325h.com | www.suantm.com | www.4625g.com | 2019m.cc | 9995u.cc | 80118.com | 998e.cc | www.081510.com | www.969713.com | www.bet73p.com | www.6687n.com | www.a98886.com | www.vylc6.com | www.3983130.com | 11005k.com | 8381f.com | 4023k.com | 6700000.cc | www.718322.com | www.6832q.com | www.4331e.com | www.4058ii.com | www.5566bifa.com | www.72hk.com | www.ylg424.com | www.yinhecc00.com | 2247f.com | 3344555.vip | 8200d.com | 93777.com | 5003qqq.com | www.84499i.com | www.802733.com | www.50052f.com | www.356977.com | www.8905h.com | www.00772w.com | www.5966ddd.com | www.vns1033.com | www.pj1314.com | www.365815a.com | www.wugou135.com | www.hg5857.com | 3434nnn.com | 201877880.com | bo768.com | 3421x.com | 3568f.com | bllyuepu.cn | 3258u.com | jszg2.com | 1591007.com | 66300vip14.com | 7196g.com | 7720k.com | www.75538a.com | www.196501.com | www.359629.com | www.557032.com | www.620557.com | www.613591.com | www.764918.com | www.799243.com | www.914904.com | www.919725.com | www.sxyl2.com | www.071wy.com | www.ck9393.com | www.c300.biz | www.819759.com | www.625477.com | www.636121.com | www.506731.com | www.368200.com | www.370837.com | www.178761.com | so.com | 2506o.com | 11114048.com | 8742b.com | 90307i.com | 06386363.com | 2454888.com | 66300vip40.com | 9287999.com | 56988.vip | 383744.com | www.3435u.com | www.h7788n.com | www.hg486.com | www.7736.com | www.99113s.com | www.bet63m.com | www.js89f.vip | www.6678697.com | www.ky1007.com | www.8839n.com | www.978797.com | www.372779.com | 8381uu.com | 55cc.com | 55323o.com | js3032.com | 22661381.com | www.d45638.com | www.004949.com | www.baifu35.com | www.pj81619.com | www.293.com | www.7782c.com | www.638466.com | 69111i.com | 6175t.com | 509.com | 8696.cc | 6556g.com | www.88837c.com | www.67333.com | www.663558.com | www.4923x.com | www.cp58.biz | wn99yyy.com | bo667766.com | 52599o.com | 4444661.com | www.zzmzjx.com | www.163a6.com | www.hg1777.com | www.7782b.com | www.422727.com | 88993u.com | 000333943.com | 0434355.com | www.54541100.com | www.1168c.com | www.1466h.com | www.ya160.com | www.43131x.com | 1389ff.com | hg1044.com | www.a1a000.cc | www.vnsr388.com | www.16181l.com | www.tyc44666.com | www.500109.com | 7249o.com | pj88dd.com | www.6009844.com | www.374646.com | www.9464gg.com | www.5095z.com | www.60007i.com | hjcp22.com | 2247i.com | www.240av.com | www.6455.com | www.2350n.com | 01885j.com | 11zz145.com | 89777f.com | www.558552.com | www.8905q.com | www.978127.com | 3049u.com | 00773.com | www.u22365.com | www.5446mm.com | www.71399x.com | www.096610.com | 3473f.com | 27878ll.com | www.xj666g.com | www.5958113.com | www.534658.com | blmdc6.com | 01266.com | www.662889.com | www.yt2019.com | www.106276.com | laok222.com | www.f118cp.com | www.500.com.cn | www.99340.cc | 3559uuu.com | 87965jj.com | www.8797aavv.com | www.fg9907.com | www.195237.com | 62222w.com | www.yh6979.com | www.u32031.com | www.754918.com | cc7570c.com | www.vns20033.com | www.bwinyz11.com | www.610659.com | 3522p.vip | www.288kb.net | www.bet63v.com | www.917787.com | 8084.com | www.67797s.com | www.a458.com | www.36166o.com | bet3650760.com | www.448628.com | www.xb88kk.com | 142788.com | j61653.com | www.015.com | www.2188cai.com | 44gg8332.com | www.849431.com | www.1754i.com | www.375781.com | v67890.com | www.57798b.com | www.71399w.com | 80031122.com | www.1818618.com | www.420086.com | www.284488.com | 6487hhh.com | www.84230.com | www.6832h.com | c9.com | www.t27229.com | www.7240p.com | 2381kkk.com | 9949o.com | www.sb5505.com | www.549577.com | 1690.com | www.938q.cc | www.812830.com | 4465c.com | www.39333.com | www.6832v.com | 1077tt.com | www.sb8860.com | www.25688f.com | 8977kk.com | www.v15542.com | www.83033w.com | 33599dd.com | www.tyc357.com | www.78700f.com | mgm3242.co | www.183543.com | www.12455w.com | 3y.com | www.hg3326.com | www.3478k.cc | 167605.com | www.http://www.410488.com/ | www.900406.com | jing822.com | www.747865.com | www.235035.com | 2851r.com | www.lhg888.com | ff555k.com | www.7720x.com | www.36583333.com | 69990f.com | www.64717.com | www.881799a.com | 22204066.com | www.4996sc.com | 30006k.com | www.7777wns.com | www.105607.com | wnsr88.com | www.46615.com | www.548477.com | 3379aa.com | www.56011f.com | 11989m.com | www.hga8383.com | www.844689.com | csj600.com | www.285628.com | 99110040.com | www.4901a.com | www.530196.com | feicai0979.com | www.866067.com | ty77711.com | www.56655a.com | www.67258e.com | www.bb1365.com | www.50051w.com | pj88vv.com | www.2021l.com | 34r35.com | www.299991.com | www.263988.com | www.ylg1234.com | www.50024y.com | bozhidao.org | www.97994e.com | 8006009.com | www.02.bet | vip31446.com | www.6137f.com | www.364141.com | www.50044.com | www.055wt.cc | 2846p.com | www.3978v.com | tt40033.com | www.d2894.com | pj88jj.com | www.752568.com | 2349013.com | www.long-8.com | www.84499v.com | www.36677c.com | www.610829.com | www.89422.com | www.gei30.com | hg0000.com | www.52303c.com | js5657.com | www.4923z.com | 5437k.com | www.806765.com | 8538x.com | www.564288.com | mm99911.net | www.45598g.com | www.822822.com | 20055566.com | www.456115.com | 922664.com | www.xw6655.com | 3121o.com | www.7302004.com | 8742q.com | www.hd779.com | fff3405.com | www.56655k.com | 365808.com | www.4963kk.com | 2008qq.com | www.3116a.com | 4647011.com | www.44118v.com | 3568z.com | www.452955.com | 13658ty.com | www.2221104.com | 1294f.cc | www.ya828.com | www.7435v.com | www.602891.com | www.58777d.com | 7605i.com | www.88606.com | 3614o.com | www.hg98029.com | 1479z.com | www.1434u.com | 008.so | www.9356m.com | www.yun770.com | www.550249.com | www.hhgg24.com | 22113885.com | www.7415z.com | 2223847.com | www.7876389.com | 56988qq.com | www.c6097.com | www.77537t.com | ylzz1113.com | www.5049d.com | 7134455.com | www.9989581.com | 6245.bet | www.581477.com | www.xpj5552.com | 4018002.com | www.078121.top | www.vns968.com | www.062766.com | www.552318.com | 33599bb.com | www.100a56.com | 55818u.com | www.731091.com | www.22667712.com | 500000759.com | www.256095.com | 2479.com | www.358268.com | www.3122oo.com | 2172299.com | www.01088.com | www.fg3388.com | weide25.net | www.8884hj.com | sha165.com | www.c3956.com | www.hg984.com | 6063331.com | www.5953588.com | www.86611g.com | www.52072o.com | www.hg702.com | 7605h.com | www.967333.com | www.306408.com | 239429.com | www.35918x.com | www.825909.com | wd0000.com | www.3a.com | www.ylg5755.com | chengbet330.com | www.5679527.com | 168cp-k.com | b957.xyz | www.369410.com | 500000516.com | bwin940.co | www.06820d.com | 23800z.com | m00351.com | www.351532.com | 3245h.com | 3936z.com | www.w84q.com | 889a.net | 22294411.com | www.954321m.com | www.hg066.com | 1654vv.com | www.50026w.com | www.tyc1802.com | 10878.com | www.ck1178.com | www.2302312.com | 08159p.com | www.303484.com | www.4828888.com | 6040055.com | 5509z.com | www.3208.com | www.wns0028.com | 39992211.com | www.914910.com | www.zzyl68.com | 22299ww.com | 7894f.com | www.8003.com | www.2078a.com | 22411.com | www.799413.com | www.5099cc.com | 87665a.com | 3807n.com | www.77803t.com | www.o5448.com | 22098s.com | www.309825.com | www.79095e.com | www.95679.com | 30019ee.com | www.988068.com | www.m32939.com | 85323.com | 9737mm.me | www.66ffu.com | www.808888m.com | 50020055.com | 0615019.com | www.222hy.cc | www.c72.com | 1592m.com | bet365v.com | www.hczx9.com | www.88166a.com | www.6033w.com | ly88888818.com | www.949403.com | www.673888b.com | www.bg999111.com | 5504.com | www.314213.com | www.bjl915.com | www.367888a.com | v997b.com | jixiang9.com | www.6832n.com | www.4212m.com | www.dz578.com | 1408y.com | www.351761.com | www.984707.com | www.303408.com | 0080l.com | sn6059.com | www.810726.com | www.742022.com | www.6suncity.com | 13879455.com | 1591yyy.com | www.c143.vip | www.792072.com | www.40048.com | yhxjaomen.vip | hg99957.com | www.766898.com | www.7920c.com | www.xpj269.com | 3434kkk.com | 99589e.net | www.095005.com | www.77801s.com | www.5146z5.com | www.76543e.com | 20055522.com | 111122gg.com | www.619939.com | www.7886263.com | www.w4042.com | www.vns2n2.com | blm655.com | 9398800.com | www.723035.com | www.ykylc02.com | www.85857p.com | www.yinhecc44.com | 00773rr.com | 73055h.com | www.560259.com | www.hg09.com | www.57800d.com | www.hg93499.com | 3222j.cc | 4445.ag | 97799.com | www.558402.com | www.77802q.com | www.xpj16688.com | www.sancaishop.com | www.dz826.com | 3482p.com | 7736i.com | 4647.net | www.912480.com | www.cp1518.com | www.00772k.com | www.335503.com | www.4759mm.com | 80850q.com | 6002p.com | 55665002.com | www.398793.com | www.8499b.com | www.ks2.com | www.sscb77.com | www.1596f.com | www.7435u.com | 2824y.net | i45638.com | 86811g.com | 5001k.com | www.775704.com | www.66621w.com | www.r999994.com | www.b3065.com | www.336631.com | www.8694v.com | 2190.com | yl6895.com | 19yl.com | 22890.co | man984.com | www.178763.com | www.cp778.com | www.77802z.com | www.yzqhyz.com | www.00773u.com | www.55537.com | www.hg93499.com | www.pj9909.com | 365vip07.win | 2190p.com | 3640xx.com | 39991122.com | 20773388.com | 11422s.com | 7284444.com | www.188393.com | www.770951.com | www.2934r.com | www.0270v.com | www.656659.com | www.8w08.com | www.00773v.com | www.77731z.com | www.642222.com | www.z47.cc | www.67797y.com | www.xw0000.com | 88999193.com | 923970.com | zhcp05.com | long397.com | 365bet888.com | 3662k.com | b14666.com | 62620524.com | 997799.net | 2019ww.cc | 131n.net | mmm5144.com | c388x.com | 8547r.com | 1389qq.com | 1294m.com | 01234zzz.com | huangma18.com | 3122bb.com | 3078i.com | 68963333.com | 70118w.com | 8294d.com | 4546vip8.com | 6137k.net | JS1388v.com | 4270qq.com | 2698a.com | dhygw8888.com | 55663885.com | 2064hb.com | 99698q.com | hg345.com | 6487ppp.com | 86611v.com | hh1088.com | btt529g.com | dzc07.com | 5589w.com | 1346.com | www.xpj5555.cc | www.6491p.com | www.mgm006.com | www.58777o.com | www.22244066.com | www.hg78789.com | www.yh111888.com | www.69896.com | www.cai73.cc | www.969709.com | www.l063801.com | www.1841222.com | www.68993263.com | www.50633.com | www.9356a.com | www.c7268.com | www.581860.com | www.083039.com | 2643u.com | 2546b.com | 25288h.com | h01234.com | z7742.com | 2373g.com | www.ca1066.com | www.006087.com | www.drf0561.com | www.69jsjs.com | www.cc00668.com | www.hb858.net | www.35155c.com | www.987581.com | www.373970.com | 6446zz.com | 0o0qi1l.com | 3678m.com | 22ee8331.com | www.csyyzz.com | www.9679i.com | www.559955.com | www.0072737.com | www.7681006.com | www.50788k.com | www.808731.com | www.43131b.com | blr6033.com | bet188com.com | 3344000.com | www.pj25555.com | www.hg353.net | www.5504i.com | www.12136u.com | www.60007w.com | www.738126.com | 08530005.com | 8294x.com | 40033b.com | 118888o.com | www.hg66997.cc | www.?28558.com | www.z63568.com | www.3668n.com | www.370155.com | yh888w.com | 36400077.com | 8030t.com | www.hg123300.com | www.8967r.com | www.410065.com | www.qmkl6.com | www.49956u.com | 4546vip2.com | 56787xx.com | www.yddc00.com | www.fzf058.com | www.x32031.com | www.32123t.com | www.314005.com | 08820055com | 79889p.com | www.1333zx.com | www.18997.com | www.490801.com | www.3478j.cc | j1759.com | 9149g.com | 6245z.com | www.7348.com | www.j3567.com | www.82575.com | www.068617.com | b1915.com | 2247zz.com | www.hg6888.com | www.bwinyz31.com | www.54400w.com | www.097318.com | qjdating.com | da611.com | www.3844d.com | www.w84t.com | www.df79.com | 84511.com | 365spa.com | www.67797o.com | www.7415kk.com | www.50064y.com | 51122.com | 4775566.com | www.hg288.com | www.dzcp5555.com | www.4648.cc | www.221075.com | 2146p.com | 08084688.com | www.qmc0088.com | www.aobo196.com | www.196057.com | bwinfff.com | www.666xin2.com | www.94675.com | www.68689h.com | 79889q.com | 3404m.cc | www.as0002.com | www.30350c.com | www.898418.com | 3650938.com | 131fff.net | www.640suncity.com | www.89888.com | 88992325.com | 82365i.com | www.msc77.net | www.vnsr738.com | www.698771.com | zhcp59.com | www.589234.com | www.88166d.com | www.11gpc.com | 00778m.com | le888s.com | www.my95.net | www.50080d.com | 73999w.com | 83377o.com | www.9ag88.com | www.50064g.com | 91234.com | 365388.bet | www.998855y.com | www.9818t.cc | 0136365.com | 20188n.com | www.7415t.com | www.912063.com | 5804k.com | www.39695j.com | www.837929.com | www.178723.com | 6594.com | www.873999.com | www.55228j.com | 7811b.com | 9997383.com | www.6880oo.com | www.587810.com | 22214.com | www.yhxizang.vip | www.15365c.com | 36400055.com | 58588h.com | www.80188j.com | www.358773.com | 205115.com | www.110476.com | www.9818c.cc | hg8081.com | www.4107h.com | www.48330s.com | gg5443.com | 131fff.net | www.1851138.com | www.335037.com | duch015.com | www.55526x.com | www.c7238.com | 0201jj.com | www.8837138.com | www.54591.com | 88993o.com | www.32666q.com | www.0601n.com | 4323j.com | www.ks081.com | www.99094a.com | xin666bb.com | www.js388999.com | www.40339.com | 866666c.com | v01234.com | www.e063801.com | dytj365.com | 2418009.com | www.j83377.com | 61324422.com | x48l.com | www.d3846.com | 99559193.com | www.jh879.com | www.099018.com | 33678dd.com | www.266688.com | www.154405.com | wns789.net | www.36677e.com | www.26299.com | 9646d.com | www.939728.com | www.794918.com | 998v.cc | www.43468.com | www.26878o.com | 1340.com | www.9971i.com | 8881481.com | www.9996mm.com | www.41518l.com | 预览f8009.com | www.599123.com | www.585277.com | 168cp-t.com | www.7191a.com | 9679s.com | www.2078x.com | www.022jx.cc | l4212.com | www.9737hh.me | 23800n.com | www.0636e.com | www.50054j.com | 3640.com | www.6606488.com | 79964v.com | www.16agks.com | www.71233f.com | xpj99909.com | www.cp88168.xn | 4195uu.com | www.tyc775.com | www.66095.cc | 23599j.com | www.16181j.com | n888ok.com | www.9679k.com | www.c5237.com | 8547a.com | www.zpw100.com | 39199j.com | www.4567749.com | www.197091.com | www.7435f.com | www.26878r.com | ylzz1115.com | www.2021j.com | 35252d.com | www.238288.com | www.237344.com | www.7435w.com | www.9149j.com | b99vip.com | www.4102d.com | bet22885.com | www.55526o.com | 26668i.com | www.pj7666.com | www.858899.com | xx2649.com | www.61655r.com | 99589.cc | www.38775vv.com | 7742ii.com | www.c555jj.com | 7792h.com | www.286688.com | 88851m.com | www.92220746.com | www.354611.com | www.vns518.com |