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    [圖文]張昊:常規為何難以突破

    作者:張昊    文章來源:本站原創    點擊數:    更新時間:2011-3-10

      

    常規為何難以突破

    中國人民大學社會與人口學院 張昊

    現代生活更加方便快捷,人們的需求得到前所未有的滿足。在科學技術發達的文明社會里,人們的選擇權利似乎比以往任何一個時代都極大的膨脹了,而事實上,我們看到每一個現代人都日復一日年復一年的局限于大致固定的生活路徑與生命體驗,現代城市與現代國家似乎也朝著同樣的終極理想運作,生命初始的激情與活力成了及其罕見的品質,生活的可能性被極大地削減了。現代人,現代城市,現代國家,一切事物似乎都在沿著一條被安排好的道路前行,不為探索,只為將這個行走的過程進行下去。我們看到,多樣的,異質的越來越少,千人一面,同質性越來越強。一方面,我們選擇的余地越來越大,另一方面,我們卻越來越不敢跳出自己的軌道,打破常規,現代生活的可能性越來越匱乏。選擇的多樣性帶來的不是生活的多彩,而是人對常規的更加難以擺脫。正如梭羅所說,我們現在擁有的只不過是生活的一種可能性,為什么堅持這一種而去貶損另外一種呢?那么常規是如何加強其控制力的呢?

    梭羅在他的書中提到了在瓦爾登湖旁自建的房屋,那房屋對于居住者來說是‘合適’的,它一方面能滿足居住者避風躲雨的基本需求,另一方面它不包含奢侈過度的成分。而在現代城市中的怪現狀是有目共睹的,一些豪華裝修的房屋常年閑置無人居住,一些外來者擁擠在幾米見方的出租房里艱難度日,更有那些無處落腳的流浪者的存在。在梭羅的邏輯下,他們為何不自己動手建造自己的避難所呢?被進步文明強化的‘規則’即在這時發生了作用。文明社會說,你自己建造的房屋與我們建造的高樓大廈格格不入。誰能料想城市中處處建起自建房屋的場景?最后他們統統被體制定性為“違規建筑”,此即文明的規則對現代人的‘剝削’,標準化與規范化的現代文明壟斷了人類生活必需品的供應源,并且不允許與其相異的另類長期的存在,不允許人們依靠自己的力量在文明的體系之內自謀生路。長此以往,自足的能力退化了,對壟斷的不滿也漸漸稀松平常了。然而總有一些不愿受拘束的個體,他們的唯一選擇,就是遠離文明的圈子——遠離城市,到鄉野去。而這樣的代價對于那些未有十分堅決之信念的人來講是難以承受的,他們寧可忍受文明的剝削,流離無依,也不遠被驅逐出去。常規的力量就這樣在文明的發展過程中強化了自身。

    梭羅在他的書中也提到現代教育的無用,學生們在學院里整日學習那些抽象的理論,而對現實發生的問題卻無能為力。這樣的文明教育是不是畸形的?它一方面無法滿足現實的需要,另一方面在遠離現實的維度上卻一再延伸。教育的重點或許不再是過程,而是結果——一個證明。受教育的目的是為了讓自己得到‘體系’與‘常規’的承認,為何自為的提升不受到承認而必須去走如生產線一樣的道路?與上文所論述的相似,這同樣是一種壟斷。文明的體系只承認體系頒發的‘合格證書’,自給自足式的自我教育是沒有市場的。那些不愿受束縛的人逃脫這一系統,按自己的方式打造自己,等待他的,大多數情況下都是被孤立,甚至被嘲諷。

    綜上兩方面的不甚全面的討論,我們似乎可以理解到這樣一個概念:文明的進步,同時也意味著對人類生存權的進一步壟斷。農村可以自己蓋房,城市里卻不可以;農村可以自己種糧糊口,城市里也不能……越是文明的體系,人們的分工就越細致,脫離系統獨自過活的能力就越退化,這樣就更加強了個體人對文明體系的依賴。而文明體系往往使人們不自覺的追求過度的工作,過度的教育,過度的錢財,體系以這些‘過度’與梭羅所謂‘奢侈’進一步發展自身,強化控制力量。形成一個無法開解的死循環。

    然而人們也并不是完全盲目的,他們偶爾也會意識到自身的處境,越來越多現代人表現出的焦慮與不安即一定程度上精神覺醒的表現。人們自然不斷去追尋他們最初創造文明、發展文明時的愿景——富足而自由的生活。每一年的開端,在和煦的春風和暖熏的陽光下,人們都做出大膽的計劃——讓接下來的一年和之前的每一年都不一樣。然而,最終計劃就只是計劃,驕陽愈烈,困乏難當,變革的心愿最后不過又如每一個春天的美好愿望那樣,化作泡影。一開始人們為了實現某些價值而創造發展一個體系,現在,他們自身被這個體系裹挾著沒法停下。

    那么如何逃離這個死循環呢?可以看到,這一循環有一個潛在的缺口——個體的勇氣。它具體表現在一個點上,即對體制的決絕的背叛。然而個體是極其脆弱的,零星的個體無力使整個人類族群從束縛中解放出來。事實上,大多數人都是極其理性的—— 方面,他們意識到體制對背叛者殘酷的鎮壓與放逐,于是遵循體制來繼續他們索然無味的生活,雖然現狀已然很是惡劣,但尚未可怕到要令他們奮不顧身與其戰斗的地步。另一方面,他們雪藏曾經對自由理想的美好愿景,強迫自己更加過度的生產勞動,以為今日之對體制的虔誠效忠能換取體制明日之恩典與憐憫,賜予他‘自在體面的按照個人意志享受生活’的合理合法性。待到那日,他已垂垂暮年,無福享樂,他的過度辛勞只是更鞏固了體制的控制力。至此,我們發現每個個體都是一個鮮明的投入產出函數,他們渴望規避可預期的風險并對現在一成不變之生活的未來之變數心存僥幸。每個個體的理性造成整個社會的不理性,每個個體勇氣的缺乏與對現狀的保守使所謂‘文明’對自我意志的消解更加劇烈。必得先有“群體性的覺醒”才能使人們回復到設計發展‘文明’這一意識形態時的初衷,這絕非簡單的一句口號而已。(舉個現實的例子來說,我不想成為一個straight-A student,但我周圍的人們都在為這一目標奮斗著,于是我沒有勇氣與眾不同,我只得隨波逐流。或許每個人都與我有相同的想法,但我們都不會首先放棄自己的奮斗。當然,這并非一個恰當的例子)

    而在群體覺悟之前,那些“有決絕勇氣之個體”不過又成為對體制的祭祀,他們是其他‘理性’人獻給體制的宴饗與犧牲。

     

     參考資料:1.梭羅 《瓦爾登湖》

                   2.希法亭 《金融資本》

     

     

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