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    [組圖]【STS名家講壇第4講】克萊頓探討生態文明建設中的科學與宗教

    作者:pst    文章來源:本站原創    點擊數:    更新時間:2011-6-14

      

       

           2011年6月11日下午,“科學、技術與社會(STS)名家講壇”第四講由美國著名建設性后現代思想家菲利普•克萊頓(Philip Clayton)主講。菲利普•克萊頓教授是耶魯大學哲學博士,哈佛大學客座教授,美國克萊蒙林肯大學副校長,中美后現代發展研究院副院長,美國過程研究中心執行主任。他以“作為生態文明仆從的科學與宗教”為題帶來了一場精彩的講座。STS名家講壇由中國人民大學哲學院科技哲學教研室、北京自然辯證法研究會、科學技術與社會通識課主辦,本次講座由北京自然辯證法研究會主任王鴻生教授、哲學院科技哲學教研室主任劉勁楊副教授共同主持,王伯魯教授擔任評論人。講座內容精彩,討論熱鬧,人大科哲專業研究生和其他人員共數十位參與了學術交流。
           克萊頓從生態文明需要的四重合作關系——即科學、宗教、生態與社會之間的合作關系——出發,著重回顧過去幾個世紀的西方世界中科學和宗教是如何統一發揮作用的。他把這一歷史過程劃分為四個階段:第一個階段是科學與價值的緊密合作的階段。他認為,古代的科學不是獨立的價值觀,如古埃及人為了了解天上的神而研究天,古中國人為了王朝的秩序而研究天。古希臘的科學探索者被稱為“自然哲學家”,因為宗教哲學的驅動而研究自然界。當希臘宗教讓位于基督教的時候,科學與宗教便開啟了更緊密的合作。第二階段,科學宣布其與宗教相獨立。由于宗教差異所造成的巨大的仇恨和戰爭,早期的科學家們試圖把科學從宗教中獨立出來。而科學從宗教中獨立出來的主要原因則是教會試圖控制所有的知識,試圖用《圣經》上的知識來回答科學問題。其中,關于早期偉大的科學家伽利略的著名戲劇就描述了教會是如何利用宗教來壓制科學。因此,科學在17世紀的歐洲與宗教相分離是必要的和正確的。第三階段,科學與價值相分離。在現代主義視域下,事實與價值相分離,科學家們的追求就是不受干涉地探索自然界知識的自由。但隨著時間的推移,很多不能科學化的領域受到了現代主義者的攻擊。“現代主義科學”認為只有關于世界的科學的描述才是真實的,而其他關于世界的描述沒有什么意義,從而,“現代主義科學”成了所有知識的霸主。過去兩百年來,西方人曾用科學應該控制所有的事情的思想對亞洲、非洲和南美洲進行殖民統治。克萊頓認為,在科學與其他文化互動的第四個階段,是超越“價值中立”的科學,在科學、宗教、生態和社會建立新型合作關系。他把這個階段的思路命名為“建設性后現代主義”,即認識到“現代主義科學”對人類福祉和環境的危害,必須對之加以引導,以造福于人類。引導的思路就是中國政府率先提出的“生態文明”建設。他認為“生態文明”代表著一種四重和諧——科學、宗教、生態和社會的和諧。
           在克萊頓看來,“生態文明”有四個視角。第一個視角是文明。文明不僅是法律、政治和技術,還意味著一個民族的整個生活方式,而“生態文明”把環境問題擴展到了包括一個民族的整個生活方式方面。第二個視角是科學。“生態文明” 抵制科學的優勢地位,把科學和技術作為我們這個社會和地球的仆人,為人類共同利益服務。第三個視角是宗教。現代性的科學與宗教彼此對立,后現代的宗教融合其他文化。比如中國傳統的道教可能會提供一個完整的世界模型,使異質性的東西達到和諧。第四個視角是生態。生態承認所有事物的相互依存關系,健康的生態系統取決于這一系統中所有有機體之間的平衡,而后現代科學有助于生態的和諧。總之,克萊頓詳述科學與宗教的歷史,就是為了今后科學和宗教攜手合作,共同成為生態文明的仆人。最后,克萊頓指出,現代主義的強大影響力,生態文明之路充滿曲折,但是可以樂觀地看到,中國政府的在“生態文明”建設上的魄力可以為世界各國所借鑒,佛教徒和基督教徒、道教徒和伊斯蘭教徒可以成為共同利益的盟友,共同開創“建設性后現代主義”的生態文明。
           哲學院王伯魯教授對克萊頓教授的演講進行了點評。他指出,科學技術在當今社會無所不在,一方面為人類創造了極大的福利,但另一方面也給人類帶來了生態危機等危害人類幸福的負面作用。克萊頓的講座從科學與宗教的關系出發,審視當今的生態文明建設,給了我們很大的啟發,但生態文明建設是一個艱難的過程,還需從理論落實到實踐中。
           克萊頓的講座充滿了對中國古代哲學思想的尊敬和對中國當前“生態文明”建設的肯定。在提問環節,聽眾與克萊頓教授進行了積極的互動,討論問題涉及許多深層思考:中國古代先哲們的思想如何能作為建設性后現代主義的思想資源來整合科學、宗教、社會與生態?究竟什么是建設性后現代思想,它與后現代,前現代的思想的區別是什么?在科學與宗教的討論中,理性、知識與直覺的本質區分是什么?怎樣能把后現代主義的生態文明思想與中國當代的現實結合?如何正確看待中國當前的生態危機與生態文明建設,等等。克萊頓對人大學生的提問非常認同,充滿激情地回答了各位師生的提問,現場互動積極,學術氣氛濃烈。
     16點30分,本次講座在大家熱烈的掌聲中圓滿結束。 
                                                                                                                                                                            (黃婷)
                                                                                                                                         來源:人大科哲www.lnttjy.com

     


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