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    2018 - 趙緒濤:科學實在論辯疑
      作者:pst    文章來源:本站原創    點擊數:    更新時間:2018-5-22    
    】【】【

     

    題    目:科學實在論辯疑

    答 辯 人:趙緒濤

    指導老師:王伯魯教授

    答辯時間:2018514

     

    引言  科學實在論爭論之審度

    1 標準科學實在論及其辯護  

    1.1 標準科學實在論之界定  

    1.1.1 “版本數量大于研究人數”  

    1.1.2 “科學為真”

    1.2 辯護:從“成功”到“為真”  

    1.2.1 無奇跡論證  

    1.2.2 穩健性論證  

    1.2.3 最佳說明推理  

    1.2.4 辯護鏈條

    2 標準科學實在論的難題  

    2.1 針對辯護方式的反駁  

    2.1.1 最佳說明推理的難題

    2.1.2 悲觀歸納論證:成功與真無關

    2.1.3 重新發現科學唯實論及其意義  

    2.2 針對真理立場的反駁  

    2.2.1 標準科學實在論真理觀兩難  

    2.2.2 科學實在論與真理關系的消除主義進路

     

    3 標準科學實在論作為強綱領

    3.1 科學哲學的反標準科學實在論傳統  

    3.1.1 從邏輯實證主義到證偽主義

    3.1.2 歷史主義和建構主義

    3.2 自然科學家的反科學實在論傳統

    3.2.1 拯救現象:古代天文學的傳統  

    3.2.2 牛頓的萬有引力:不臆造形而上學假說  

    3.2.3 近代電磁理論的實在論之爭

    3.2.4 玻爾的工具主義

    3.3 標準科學實在論僅為特定科學哲學觀點

    4 非標準科學實在論:對實在的辯護姿態  

    4.1 所謂實在問題

    4.2 實在問題之爭:我們到了哪里  

    4.3 結構實在論作為爭論的分界  

    4.4 科學實在論爭論雙方的共識

    4.4.1 全面實在論:存在外部世界

    4.4.2 全面反實在論:認知無法通達實在

    4.5 主要的反實在論轉化為科學實在論版本

    4.6 科學實在論究竟是什么

    5 科學實在論爭論不能解決實在問題  

    5.1 量子力學解釋懸而未決  

    5.2 弦物理學與當前科學實在論無關  

      5.2.1 非經驗證實的三個理由和三個論證  

      5.2.2 為什么相信一個理論  

      5.2.3 非經驗證實論證的缺陷  

    5.3 暗物質和暗能量研究支持非充分決定性論證 109

      5.3.1 暗物質理論的發展 110

      5.3.2 暗能量概念的興起 112

      5.3.3 支持非充分決定性論證

    5.4 科學問題和科學實在論問題

    6 科學的實在觀

    6.1 恰當地理解科學和實在:審度的科學實在論立場

    6.2 從標準科學實在論到科學的實在觀

    6.3 推薦依賴模型實在論

      6.3.1 “神目觀”的破除

      6.3.2 依賴模型實在論的理論淵源

      6.3.3 超越爭論

      6.3.4 依賴模型實在論的意義

    結語  相信科學:科學樂觀主義者的一個宣言

    參考文獻

    后記和致謝

    附錄

     

                                    摘  要

     

     

    科學實在論究竟是什么以及應當是什么,是本文要探究的核心問題。

    文章的第一章至第四章分析了前一問題,第五章和第六章分析后一問題。

    扼要的回答是:“科學實在論”這一術語同時指稱相互矛盾的“標準科學實在論”和“非標準科學實在論”,這導致了科學實在論爭論的疑局;科學實在論,在指稱上,應當是所謂的“廣義的科學實在論”,在內容上,應當是“科學的實在觀”。

    第一章至第四章旨在以一種新的思路理解科學實在論爭論,并凸顯科學實在論爭論的疑局。

    第一章分析了“科學實在論”這一術語通常指稱的立場,即標準科學實在論。其特點是,以形而上學、語義學、認識論三個論題為界定標準,以無奇跡論證為核心辯護,試圖從科學成功的事實,得到科學為(近似)真的認識論結論;第二章分析了其難題是,以最佳說明推理為基本辯護策略并不可靠;“科學求真”這種認識本身也并不合理。第三章指出,標準科學實在論是一種過強的立場,其標準難以得到滿足。它只是20世紀70-80年代一些科學哲學家提出的特定立場。

    非標準科學實在論,是指那些從語義學或認識論進路反對標準科學實在論的、亦被稱為“科學實在論”的立場,比如實體實在論、結構實在論等。

    第四章提出一個論證——即主要的反實在論(比如建構經驗論)的核心主張可以轉化為科學實在論版本;并指出“科學實在論”這個術語缺少清晰的含義。

    如果將“科學實在論”理解為依據或審視自然科學的、對外部世界(至少一部分,比如實體、過程和結構)的實在性進行辯護的立場(這是標準科學實在論和非標準科學實在論唯一的共同特征),那么經過轉化的反實在論也將包含在這個概念中。在這個意義上,“科學實在論”其實是指對實在的具有辯護姿態的立場,而不僅是通常所理解的標準科學實在論。

    第五章和第六章試圖在上述理解的基礎上,對科學實在論進行審度,并以“科學的實在觀”為核心概念理解科學實在論爭論的意義,也就是恰當地理解科學和實在。

    第五章分析了當代物理學前沿的三個領域,指出科學實在論既不能以它們為基礎也不能為它們提供辯護,主要原因在于它們很大程度上還在發展之中、尚無定論。其中,暗物質和暗能量的研究現狀明顯支持了反實在論的非充分決定性論證。并且強調不能混淆科學問題和科學哲學問題,明確了二者的區別,則科學實在論爭論的意義也就變得明確。

    第六章將科學實在論爭論的恰當意義理解為:恰當地理解科學以及恰當地理解實在。這也正是對科學實在論爭論的審度取向的最終目標。以此方式理解科學實在論爭論,則會明確,一種依據或審視自然科學的、對外部世界(或至少其一部分,比如實體、過程或結構)的實在性進行辯護的立場,究竟應該稱之為科學實在論、反實在論、抑或是“廣義的科學實在論”并非至關重要的問題。重要的問題在于這種觀點如何可能,以及具體來說它應當如何。

    為了表述的方便,本文將使人們對科學和實在的理解更加深刻的立場稱為“科學的實在觀”,以取代以往的科學實在論和反實在論的劃分。

    科學實在論爭論的歷程可視為標準科學實在論向科學的實在觀的轉變。科學的實在觀至少有三個特征:依賴或審視自然科學對實在的探究成果;慎重對待任何形而上學預設;對科學及科學哲學未來的任何可能發展保持開放的姿態。

    文章最后推薦依賴模型實在論,作為一種基于當代自然科學和科學哲學的、恰當的“科學的實在觀”。

    結語部分簡潔地表達了對科學實在論疑難之辯:“科學實在論”指稱不清晰、主要的反實在論可以轉化為科學實在論版本、“科學實在論”應當被理解為“科學的實在觀”,回顧了文章的主要內容,并且表達了一種科學樂觀主義者對待實在問題的態度:相信科學。

    關鍵詞:科學實在論;反實在論;實在觀

     

     

    Abstract

    What is exactly and what should be the scientific realism are the core issues of this article.

    Chapter 1~4 analyzed the “what is exactly” question, Chapter 5 and 6 analyzed the “what should be” question.

    The concise answer is: the term “scientific realism” concurrently refers to contradictory “standard scientific realism” and “non-standard scientific realism”, this resulted in the suspicion of scientific realism; scientific realism, in terms of reference, should be the so-called “general scientific realism”, and in terms of content, should be the “scientific conception of reality”.

    Chapter 1~4 aim at comprehending the scientific realism debates with a new approach and try to reveal the above-mentioned suspicion.

    Chapter 1 analyzed what the term “scientific realism” commonly referred. Its main characteristics are that, it defined by metaphysics, semantics, and epistemology thesis; it defended mainly by the no-miracles argument, and concluded with science is (approximately) true because of the fact that science is successful. This kind of scientific realism was denoted with “standard scientific realism” (SSR for short in this context). The problems of SSR are that, which is analyzed in Chapter 2, defenses based on Inference to the Best Explanation are essentially unreliable; and the view of “science pursues truth”, is not appropriate. Chapter 3 stated that SSR is a position too strong to be satisfied. It is just a specific position put forward by some scientific philosophers in 1970s~1980s.

    Non-SSR refers to positions objecting SSR in semantic and epistemological approaches, yet still be called with “scientific realism”, such as realism about entity and structural realism.   

    Chapter 4 proposed a novel argument that the main claims of current anti-realisms can be translated into a scientific realism version. Then, the term “scientific realism” lacks clarity.

    However, if “scientific realism” is comprehended as the position based on or examines natural sciences and defends the reality of external world (at least a part of it, such as entities, processes, and structures), then the transformed anti-realism will also be included in this concept. This comprehension is the only common feature of both SSR and non-SSR. “scientific realism” in this sense, is denoting the positions with defensive gesture of reality, instead of its usual implications.

    Chapter 5 and 6 reconsidered scientific realism debates based on above mentioned clues and revealed the appropriate significance of the debates, which is appropriately understand science and reality, with the core concept, “scientific conception of reality”.

    Chapter 5 analyzed three frontiers of contemporary physics and indicated that they could neither be the foundation of scientific realism, nor be defended by it, the main reason is that they are not mature theories. Among these frontiers, the current research status of dark matter and dark energy clearly supports the underdetermination argument of anti-realism. Furthermore, science questions and philosophy of science questions should not be confused, once the differences of them is clarified, then the significance of the debates could be clarified.

    Chapter 6 comprehended the proper significance of scientific realism debates as appropriately understand science and reality. This is also the ultimate significance of the reconsideration of the debates. With this comprehension, a position based on or examines natural sciences and defends the reality of external world (or at least part of it, such as entities, processes, and structures), whatever it should be called, for instance, scientific realism, anti-realism or general scientific realism, is not a crucial issue; the crucial issue should be how this view might be and specifically what it should be.

    For the convenience of expression, this article refers to the view that makes people more profoundly understand science and reality as the “scientific conception of reality.”

    The progress of scientific realism debates could be regarded as establishing more appropriate scientific conception of reality from the SSR. Scientific conception of reality has at least three characteristics: it depends on the inquiries of reality of natural sciences; it carefully treats any metaphysical presupposition; and remain open to any possible development of science and philosophy of science in the future.

    At last, this article recommended the model-dependent realism as an appropriate scientific conception of reality in the background of contemporary natural sciences and philosophy of science.

    The conclusion part briefly reviewed the contents of this article after concisely expressed the analysis of the suspicion of scientific realism: the reference of “scientific realism” is not clear; main anti-realisms can be translated into a scientific realism version; “scientific realism” should be understood as “scientific conception of reality”; and expressed a scientific optimist’s attitude towards reality issues: trust science.

    Keywords: Scientific Realism; Anti-Realism; Conception of Reality

     

     

     

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