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    2018 - 李曈:走向“后基因組時代”的遺傳科學與生命進化問題辨析
      作者:PST    文章來源:本站原創    點擊數:    更新時間:2018-5-17    
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    題目:走向“后基因組時代”的遺傳科學與生命進化問題辨析

    作者:李曈

    指導老師:劉大椿

    答辯時間:2018514

     

     

    目 錄

    緒 論    

    0.1 論文研究背景    

    0.1.1 當代遺傳科學的發展與新的問題     

    0.1.2 當代進化論的發展與新的問題 

    0.1.3 遺傳科學與進化論的相互滲透 

    0.2 文獻綜述    

    0.3 選題意義與論文框架

    0.3.1 選題意義

    0.3.2 論文框架

    1章走向后基因組時代的遺傳科學

    1.1 遺傳科學的三個發展階段

    1.1.1 1900-1953:經典遺傳學時代    

    1.1.2 1953-2000:分子遺傳學時代    

    1.1.3 2000至今:后基因組時代 

    1.2 基因研究的功能轉向

    1.2.1 功能基因組學取代結構基因組學     

    1.2.2 解釋基因功能的兩種視角 

    1.3 基因中心主義的消解

    1.3.1 表觀遺傳現象對經典定律及中心法則的反叛 

    1.3.2 渠化現象對表型在進化中作用的強調     

    1.3.3 圍繞拉馬克主義產生新的爭論 

    本章小結   

    2章進化理論的演變     

    2.1 從進化思想到群體遺傳學

    2.1.1 達爾文之前的進化思想     

    2.1.2 達爾文的進化論 

    2.1.3 達爾文主義與基因學說的現代綜合      

    2.1.4 進化中基因作用的中性假說修正     

    2.1.5 遺傳科學與進化論的錯位 

    2.2 基于自然選擇的三種進化模型

    2.2.1 進步主義的階梯模型 

    2.2.2 人類中心主義的倒錐模型 

    2.2.3 進化歷史主義的支流模型 

    2.3 復雜性科學對進化圖景的修正

    2.3.1 廣義進化綜合理論     

    2.3.2 自創生-蓋婭理論的進化圖景   

    2.3.3 對新達爾文主義的批判與補充 

    本章小結   

    3章遺傳與進化問題中的基因還原論辨析 

    3.1 遺傳科學中的基因還原論

    3.1.1 關于基因的弱微觀還原論 

    3.1.2 關于基因的強微觀還原論 

    3.1.3 作為基因決定論的還原論 

    3.1.4 基因還原論的應用:優生學     

    3.2 進化論中的基因還原論    

    3.2.1 進化論中基因還原論的背景     

    3.2.2 自私基因論的假設與問題 

    3.2.3 基因還原論的衍生:模因論     

    本章小結   

    4章遺傳與進化視角的人性論解釋     

    4.1 社會生物學對人性的解釋

    4.1.1 社會生物學的創立     

    4.1.2 社會生物學的基因還原論傾向 

    4.1.3 對社會生物學的自然主義之批判     

    4.2 演化心理學對人性的解釋

    4.2.1 演化心理學的基本假設     

    4.2.2 演化心理學存在的問題     

    4.3 基于基因選擇論的人性解釋    

    4.3.1 道金斯在人性論上的思想變化 

    4.3.2 對該人性論的兩種發展     

    4.3.3 兩種人性假設的對比 

    4.4 遺傳與進化解釋視角的局限    

    4.4.1 泛生物學解釋的限度 

    4.4.2 二元論批判的不徹底性     

    本章小結   

    結語:走出基因中心主義   

    5.1 研究總結    

    5.1.1 后基因組時代是當下遺傳科學的研究共識     

    5.1.2 遺傳科學呈現功能轉向和去中心化特征 

    5.1.3 遺傳科學與進化論對基因的定義出現錯位     

    5.1.4 遺傳學新證據對基因還原論的合理性構成挑戰     

    5.1.5 生物學視角對人性論的解釋存在局限     

    5.2 展望:從基因中心主義轉向情境主義    

    5.2.1 基因研究的去中心化 

    5.2.2 發育學對遺傳學的補充     

    參考文獻      

              

     

    摘 要

    “基因”是20世紀科學界的關鍵詞。以1900年孟德爾遺傳學的重新發現為開端,到2000年人類基因組計劃(Human Genome Project)取得初步成果,僅有百年歷史的遺傳科學重塑了人類對生命的理解。然而進入21世紀,越來越多無法被經典遺傳學解釋的反例涌現出來。另一個新的名詞——“后基因組時代”(the Post-genomic Era)成為學界爭論的焦點。核心問題在于:20世紀的遺傳科學很可能從本質上誤解了“基因”的含義。若是如此,以基因學說為基礎的遺傳科學、進化理論,甚至相關的社會理論,都將要面臨一場大的變革。是故,本文從遺傳科學的最新爭論為切入點,試探討圍繞“后基因組時代”的一系列理論轉變,以及遺傳科學與進化論在新時代將面臨的挑戰。

    本文第一章梳理了遺傳科學的百年歷史和21世紀的前沿動態。通常來論,遺傳科學以孟德爾遺傳學重新發現、DNA雙螺旋結構揭曉、人類基因組草圖完成為標志,分別劃為經典遺傳學時代、分子遺傳學時代、后基因組時代三個階段。每個階段中,作為核心術語的“基因”都有著不同的定義。特別是在后基因組時代,為了應對不斷出現的新科學證據,眾多科學家都對基因進行了重新定義。這些定義存在諸多分歧,但都表現出功能轉向與去中心化的特點。與此同時,調控因子、表觀遺傳等非基因遺傳現象引起了廣泛關注,甚至引發了“新拉馬克主義”的爭論。可以預見的是,后基因組時代的遺傳科學將顛覆先前人們對生命機制的理解,其影響也將不斷擴散到各個相關領域。

    本文第二章關注了與遺傳科學最直接相關的進化論領域。雖然在最初,由于孟德爾的研究被埋沒,尚無人將其與達爾文進化論相聯系。但在1900年孟德爾遺傳學再度發現之后,致力于統計學應用的生物學家們迅速發現了二者之間的密切聯系。以遺傳科學為基礎的“新達爾文主義得以建立,遺傳與進化兩大主題的聯姻成就了生物學的現代綜合modern synthesize)。基因學說成為進化論的微觀基礎。然而在20世紀末,從復雜性科學領域興起的系統自然觀沖擊了新達爾文主義的經典理論,異軍突起的自創生-蓋婭self creation - Gaia)假說與后基因組時代新遺傳學證據一起,成為進化論在21世紀必須面對的問題。

    本文第三章關注了遺傳與進化領域的基因還原論問題。與一般還原論不同,基因還原論不是通常討論的實體還原或結構還原,而是一種構成信息的還原。在遺傳科學中,由于社會達爾文主義的余波,基因還原論的討論與應用存在大量誤解。但隨著后基因組時代的功能轉向與去中心化,以還原論為基礎的優生學勢必將轉向由發育學所主導的情境主義優境學(euthenics)。在進化論中,基因還原論主要表現為理查德·道金斯(Richard Dawkins)為代表的自私基因論the Selfish Gene),即一種選擇層次的基因還原論。然而道金斯所定義的基因并不能與后基因組時代的新遺傳學相兼容,其所衍生的模因meme)假說更是存在問題的。

    本文第四章延伸到以遺傳和進化理論為基礎的人性論探討。雖然社會達爾文主義逐漸被學界拋棄,其所引發的尋找人性的自然基礎問題卻從未停息。從20世紀末至今,幾個具有代表性的理論一度成為了生物學與社會學討論的熱點,主要包括社會生物學(sociobiology)、演化心理學(evolutionary psychology)、達爾文左派(Darwinian Left)等思想。這些理論大部分是由生物學家所提出,并將具有遺傳和進化特性的基因作為人性的自然基礎,試圖消解以往人性論中先天遺傳(自然)與后天培育(社會)的經典二元論。然而,由于泛生物學解釋的局限,這些理論對二元論的批判并不徹底。至后基因組時代,對基因的重新定義將會為重釋人性的自然基礎提供新的出路。

    最后,本文總結了在后基因組時代的開端,遺傳與進化研究所達成的幾個關鍵結論,并提出由基因中心論向情境主義轉變的趨勢展望。由于基因表達取代基因結構成為遺傳科學的研究重點,發育學不僅推動了優生學向優境學轉向,更是基因與非基因遺傳研究不可或缺的視角。同時,新興的演化發育生物學(evolutionary developmental biology)也將發育學與進化論研究結合起來。不同于20世紀的經典遺傳科學與進化論研究,發育學強調基因在具體情境中的表達,包括基因的微環境、生物體內環境,乃至自然界與人類社會的外在環境。情境主義或將成為后基因組時代的主題,并為彌合自然與社會的二分、解釋生命本質問題提供新的路徑。

     

    關鍵詞:基因; 遺傳; 進化; 后基因組時代

     

    ABSTRACT

    "Gene" is a key word of science in the 20th century. From 1900 when Mendel's genetic theory was rediscoveried, to Human Genome Project gained its first achievement in 2000, genetics which has only one hundred years' history, had totally redefined human's understanding of life. However, with the development of genome studies in the 21th century, more and more counter-examples appeared which cannot be explained by the classic theories. Instead, a new key word -- "the Post-genomic Era" became the bone of contention. And the core problem is that the 20 century genetics very probably misunderstood the essense of "gene". If so, theories based on gene such as genetics, evolution, and even certain social theories, will face a big revolution. For that reason, this dissertation will start at the latest dispute in genetics, and then discuss what challenges genetics and evolution studies are facing in this new era.

    The first chapter is about the 100 years' history and the leading edge of genetics. Generally, the development of genetics can be divided into three stages: the classical era, which were lead by the reappearing of Mendelian genetics; the molecular era, which started with the discovery of DNA double helix structure; and the post-genomic era, accompanied with the first achievement of human genomics project. In each stage, the definitions of "gene" were totally different from each other. Especially in the post-genomic era, many scientists have redefined genes in response to the emerging scientific evidences; and all of them show the features of functional transition and decentralization. At the same time, non-genetic inheritance phenomena, such as regulatory factors and epigenetic inheritance, have attracted widespread attention and have even led to the debate on "new Lamarckism." It is foreseeable that genetics in the post-genomic era will overturn previous understandings of life mechanisms and influence various related fields.

    The second chapter of this article focuses on the areas of evolution which are most directly related to genetics. Although initially Mendel's research was buried and nobody linked it to Darwinian evolution, after the rediscovery of Mendelian genetics in 1900, biologists working on statistical applications at once discovered the close relationship between the two. The "New Darwinism" based on genetics was established. The marriage of genetics and evolution became the "modern synthesize" of biology. The theory of genetics provided a solid microscopic foundation for the evolution of New Darwinism. Three evolutionary models in the 20th century were all based on genetic theory. However, at the end of the 20th century, the spontaneous view of nature that emerged from the field of complexity science impacted the classic theories of neo-Darwinism. Therefore, apart from the internal theoretical differences, the rise of "self-created Gaia" hypothesis, along with new genetic evidences in the post-genomic era, has become the problems which evolution scholars have to face with in the 21st century.

    The third chapter discusses the issue of gene reductionism in genetics and evolution. Unlike general reductionism, gene reductionism is not a general discussion of material reduction or structure reduction, but a reduction of constituent information. In genetics, due to the aftermath of social Darwinism, there exists many misunderstandings in the discussion and application of gene reductionism. However, with the functional transition and decentralization in the post-genomic era, eugenics based on reductionism will inevitably replaced by the eugenics base on contextualism. In evolution theory, gene reductionism is mainly represented by Richard Dawkins' "Selfish Gene", which is a selection-level reduction theory. However, the term "gene" defined by Dawkins cannot be compatible with the newest genetics of the post-genomic era. The "meme" hypothesis derived from it is therefore even more problematic.

    The fourth chapter extends to the debate on human nature based on genetics and evolutionary theories. Although social Darwinism was gradually abandoned by the academic community in the 20th century, the question of “seeking the natural basis for human nature” has never ceased. From the end of the 20th century to the present, several representative theories have become hot spots in the discussion of biology as well as sociology, including sociobiology, evolutionary psychology (abbreviated as ev-psych or EP), Darwinian Left, etc. Most of these theories were put forward by biologists, who used genes with hereditary and evolutionary characteristics as the natural basis of human nature. They tried to dissolve the classical dualism of "nature vs nurture (society)". However, due to the limitations of the pan-biological interpretation, their criticizes of dualism were forceless. On the other hand, the redefinition of gene in the post-genomic era has provided a new outlet for re-interpretation of the natural basis of human nature.

    Finally, this dissertation summarizes several key conclusions by genetics and evolution studies at the beginning of the post-genomic era, and proposes the trend of shifting from gene centralism to contextualism. As gene expression instead of gene structure has become the focus of genetics, auxanology which promoted the shift from eugenics to eugenics, also proposed an indispensable perspective of the studies on inheritance phenomenon of genes as well as non-genes. At the same time, evolutionary developmental biology also combined auxanology and evolutionary studies. Unlike classical genetics and evolutionary studies in the 20th century, auxanology emphasizes the expression of genes in specific contexts, including the microenvironment of genes, the internal environment of organisms, and the external environment of nature and human society. Contextualism will very probably become the theme of the post-genomic era, which can bridge the dichotomy between nature and society, and providing a new perspective for explaining the essence of life.

     

    Key words: gene; genetics; evolution; the Post-genomic Era

     

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