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    2017—崔樹芝:牟宗三科學觀研究
      作者:PST    文章來源:本站原創    點擊數:    更新時間:2017-5-18    
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    題目:牟宗三科學觀研究

    作者:崔樹芝

    指導老師:王鴻生

    答辯時間:2017516

     

    目錄

           1

    0.1 論文選題及選題意義     1

    0.1.1 論文選題      1

    0.1.2 選題意義      2

    0.2 文獻綜述 4

    0.2.1國內研究綜述        4

    0.2.2國外研究狀況        8

    0.3 研究方法和創新點 10

    0.3.1 研究方法      10

    0.3.2創新點   12

     

    1 科學與牟宗三早年學思歷程  14

    1.1科學的時代呼聲與科學主義  15

    1.1.1 要求科學、民主成為時代課題  15

    1.1.2 “科學主義”思潮      16

    1.2 牟宗三早年的學術探索 20

    1.2.1 現代新儒家與科學派的不足      20

    1.2.2 獨立的運思,接受西方哲學訓練      22

    1.2.3 架構的思辨,接上西方文化傳統      25

    1.3熊十力對牟宗三科學觀的影響       27

    本章小結         30

     

    2 牟宗三對西方科學源流的反思       32

    2.1從古希臘傳統到現代自然科學的發展  32

    2.1.1 中西文化觀念的差異  32

    2.1.2 古希臘開啟“學之為學“的科學傳統      33

    2.1.3 “化質歸量”的現代自然科學  37

    2.2理性之架構表現與科學精神  40

    2.2.1 理性之架構表現與概念的心靈  41

    2.2.2 知性的邏輯性格與形式科學      42

    2.2.3 “化質歸量”的自然科學  45

    2.3無體、無力、無理的現代科學       48

    2.3.1 論“無體、無力、無理”  49

    2.3.2 批評“向所而驅”的西方科學哲學傳統  50

    2.3.3 “歸能而逆”:為科學尋求實踐的安頓    51

    本章小結         52

     

    3 牟宗三對中國科學無而能有的思考       54

    3.1羲和傳統與中國古代科學       54

    3.1.1 中國有無科學的爭論  55

    3.1.2 “羲和傳統”:中國的科學傳統         56

    3.1.3 中國存在發展出科學的可能      58

    3.2中國沒有科學的深層文化原因       60

    3.2.1 “仁”的文化系統對“智”的統攝  61

    3.2.2 政治文化對學術文化的統馭      64

    3.3內圣開出新外王:科學在中國如何無而能有       67

    3.3.1 科學是“共法”,無中西之別    68

    3.3.2 “良知坎陷”開出知性主體      68

    3.3.3 科學從政治權力的統馭中解放出來  71

    本章小結         75

     

    4 牟宗三中西會通的科學觀       76

    4.1 智的直覺與兩層存有論 77

    4.1.1 康德未能充分證成現象和物自身      78

    4.1.2 智的直覺如何可能      79

    4.1.3 兩層存有論  82

    4.2 科學與良知坎陷     83

    4.2.1 科學的本質是識心之執      84

    4.2.2 “良知坎陷論”的階段發展      87

    4.2.3 良知與科學的深層關系      95

    4.3 “三統并建”的現代文明     98

    4.3.1 開出學統以求科學的獨立  98

    4.3.2 認識政統以求政治之客觀架構  99

    4.3.3 繼續道統以守護道德的理想主義      101

    本章小結         103

     

    5 牟宗三科學觀的定位       104

    5.1 科學觀在牟宗三思想體系中的地位     104

    5.1.1 對牟宗三哲學過往研究的不足  104

    5.1.2 牟宗三科學觀的“半邊天”地位      105

    5.2 牟宗三科學觀在中國科學哲學史上的地位 107

    5.2.1 科學哲學史的研究視域      107

    5.2.2 中國科學哲學史的起點和流派  110

    5.2.3 基于中國文化立場的科學觀      113

    5.3 牟宗三科學觀的結構與局限 115

    5.3.1 牟宗三科學觀的結構  115

    5.3.2 牟宗三科學觀的局限  121

           125

    參考文獻         128

           137

    博士在讀期間論文發表情況         140

     

    論文摘要

    牟宗三是當代新儒家的代表人物。因為標簽化的“新儒家”身份,學界往往關注牟宗三當代新儒學思想體系的建構,而忽視了促發他進行哲學思考以及其整個學思歷程的動源。據牟宗三晚年回顧,他的一生念茲在茲是在思考一個問題,就是中國文化的歷史發展方向,如何從內圣開外王,他出入于中西兩大文化傳統,以求中西會通,從中國方面而言即要求一個大綜和,就是吸收西方的科學傳統、自由民主傳統。顯而易見,牟宗三哲學即是在處理五四新文化運動中提出的時代課題,即要求科學、民主。科學在牟宗三的哲學中實居半邊天的角色,不得不予以重視。本論文即研究牟宗三對科學的系統反思。

    本論文除緒論外有五章內容。

    緒論主要論述選題依據和選題意義,以及文獻綜述和研究方法,并介紹本論文的創新之處。

    第一章主要介紹牟宗三科學觀的文化背景以及他早期學術研究的特征。筆者將指出,科學問題是牟宗三進行哲學思考的起點。牟宗三不滿于當時浮泛的學風,故而決定去研究科學由以產生的西方文化傳統。熊十力則把牟宗三帶入了中國文化的堂奧。牟宗三在其早期學術生涯中,已經確立了出入中西文化而求會通的志愿,從其學思歷程來看,他確實兩線并行,但又有重點。他先致力于西方哲學,后致力于中國的內圣之學,最后會通中西。

    第二章主要介紹牟宗三對西方科學的理解。他認為西方文化是智的文化系統,自古希臘開始即出現了獨立發展的知性,這一“概念的心靈”正是科學得以產生的深層文化原因。在牟宗三看來,科學是伴隨知性主體的呈露而出現的。但是,從古希臘理性科學轉變為“化質歸量”的近代自然科學,這實是一步“坎陷”,這一步“坎陷”并沒有什么不好,但自然科學發展到后來則成了“無體、無力、無理”的“墮落”。在這里,牟宗三看到了西方科學發展的限度,科學需要尋找到實踐的安頓,方能避免科學一層論的弊病。

    第三章主要介紹牟宗三對中國有無科學的看法。牟宗三認為中國有自己的科學傳統,即“羲和傳統”。可是,羲和之官卻在王官失守之后一變再變而轉為陰陽家,結果“始也為用,終也為用”,最終未能發展出科學,雖沒有發展出科學,羲和傳統卻表明中國有發展出科學的可能性。然而,中國沒有發展出科學實有深層的文化原因。一方面,中國是仁的文化系統,智的知性形態受制于圣賢人格的直覺形態的統攝,無法得以獨立發展;另一方面,學術文化受制于政治文化的統馭,也無法得以解放。科學本是知性之能,在人類文化中本無中西之別,科學在中國文化背景下如何無而能有,牟宗三的回答是“由內圣開出新外王”。這里的關鍵實為從中國文化中發展出獨立的知性主體,這不僅需要讓“智”從“仁”的統攝中釋放出來,科學也要從政治的統馭中解放出來。為此,他提出“三統并建”的思想。

    第四章主要介紹牟宗三中西會通的科學觀。在經過“西—中”兩個階段后,他以康德為媒介實現中西哲學的會通(合)。他指出人是否有智的直覺是中西哲學判分的標志。他從中國文化傳統出發,認為人可以有智的直覺,由此保住中國文化的本位,肯定中國文化的價值。人有智的直覺,且人雖有限而可無限,由此他證成道德的形上學,并由此而言兩層存有論,即本體界的存有論(無執的存有論)和現象界的存有論(執的存有論),知性乃是由知體明覺(良知)的坎陷而成,其本質即為識心之執。如此,他既肯定了科學在現象界的獨立地位,也給科學一理性上的安頓,即科學雖為知性之能,但本質上乃是良知的坎陷。“良知坎陷論”有一發展的過程,經歷“坎陷論”、“開出論”,至“存有論”方為圓熟。牟宗三還把科學放在“三統并建”的現代文明觀中加以考察。

    第五章是對牟宗三科學觀的定位。牟宗三的科學觀在牟宗三整個思想系統中居于半邊天的地位,并且具有科學哲學史上的意義。大體而言,牟宗三的科學觀以“內圣開出新外王”為自覺的文化使命,以德性與知性的二分為結構特征,以“開出學統”與“攝智歸仁”為理路,以“三統并建”為歸宿。但是,牟宗三的科學觀也存在著明顯的局限,表現為:1、本質主義的思維傾向;2、對西方科學哲學的發展缺乏同情的了解;3、缺乏實踐上的操作步驟。但平心而論,牟宗三的科學觀試圖把人類文明中的理性注入中國文化生命的長河,從而提升中華文明的理性程度。這種科學觀即便在今日仍具有現實意義。

    關鍵詞:牟宗三;科學觀;科學哲學史;當代新儒家

     

    ABSTRACT

        Mou zongsan is the representative figure of the contemporary New Confucians. Because of the label of "New Confucian", academic circles tend to focus on his system of the contemporary new Confucianism, but neglect the dynamic source contributing to his philosophical thinking and the whole learning process. According to the review of Mou Zongsan in his late year, he had always reflected on a problem through his whole life, that is how to open new kingliness from inner sageliness in the direction of Chinese culture. He went into both Chinese and western cultural traditions, so as to realize the merging of them. From the aspects of China, it needs a great synthesis, which would involve absorbing the Western traditions of science and liberal democracy. Obviously, the philosophy of Mou zongsan is to deal with the contemporary issues put forward in the May fourth New Culture Movement, which requires science and democracy. Science takes the half proportion of the philosophy of Mou Zongsan. In this paper, I will research on the systematic reflections on Mou Zongsan’s thinking of science.

        This thesis has five chapters except the introduction.

        The introduction mainly discusses the basis and significance of selected topic, as well as the literature review and research methods, and introduces the innovation of this paper.

    The first chapter mainly introduces the cultural background of Mou Zongsan's thinking of science and the characteristics of his early academic research. I will point out that thinking of science is the beginning of philosophical thinking of Mou Zongsan. Mou zongsan dissatisfied with the impetuous atmosphere of his time, and decided to go deep into the tradition of western culture which gives birth to science. Xiong Shili took Mou zongsan into the deep of Chinese culture. In his early academic career, Mou zongsan has set up the ambition to realize the synthesis between Chinese and western culture. From his learning and thinking course, he went with two parallel line, but there was the point in each period. He researched on western philosophy firstly, then Chinese theory of “cultivating himself”, at last the merging of Chinese and western tradition.

    The second chapter mainly introduces Mou Zongsan’s understanding of western science. He thinks that the culture of the western culture is typical of intellectual system. From the ancient Greek, there has emerged the independent development of intellect, they owns conceptual mind which is to the deep cultural cause of science. From Mou Zongsan, Science is along with the reveal of the cognitive subject. But from the ancient Greek rational science to modern natural science typical of "quality to quantity", there is a step of the "negation" which is nothing wrong. In the later development, natural science appears with "no bodywu ti無體), no powerwuli無力) and no reasonwuli無理)". Mou Zongsan treats it corrupted. So mou zongsan finds the limits of the development of western science, science need trace back to the source of practice, then it can avoid the disadvantage of scientism.

    The third chapter mainly introduces Mou Zongsan’s views on whether China had science. Mou Zongsan thinks China has its own scientific tradition, namely "Xi-he tradition". However, government experts turned to be the Yin-yang school after they left from the government. "Xi-he tradition" characterized with "beginning to use, and eventually also for use", eventually failed to become science. But xihe tradition suggests the possibility that China could develope science. However, there has deep cultural reasons for China without science. On the one hand, Chinese culture is the system of Ren(仁), intellectual form of wisdom is subject to the intuitional form, and has no chance of independent development; On the other hand, Academic culture is under the control of political culture, also cannot be free. Science is the function of cognitive. There is no diference between China and the West. Then how science can be developed under the background of China, the answer of Mou Zongsan is "inner sageliness opens new outer kingliness". The key here is to turn up the independent intellectual subject from Chinese culture, that means science need rid out of burdens from morals and politics. For this reason, he put forward the doctrine of Pay Equal Attention to three Orthodoxies.

    The fourth chapter mainly introduces the Mou Zongsan's thinking of science from the merging of Chinese and western tradition. After two stages, "West to China", he tries to realize the merging of Chinese and western tradition with Kant philosophy as his medium. From Chinese tradition, he thinks that people can have intellectual intuition, and people are limited and unlimited, therefore he justifies moral metaphysic, and claims two layers of ontology, the ontology of noumenon and the ontology of phenomenon. Cognitive is from self-negation of conscience. So he justifies the independent status of science in the phenomenon world, also give a rational settle for science. Namely, science is from self-negation of conscience. The theory of self-negation of conscience has a process of development, from "negation" to "open", then to "ontology". Mou zongsan puts science the doctrine of Pay Equal Attention to three Orthodoxies.

    The fifth chapter mainly discusses the position of Mou Zongsan's thinking of science. Mou Zongsan’s thinking of science takes half part position in the whole philosophical system of him and has great significance in the history of Chinese philosophy of science. In general, Mou Zongsan’s thinking of science takes “open new kingliness from inner sageliness” as cultural mission, with the dimidiate structue of virtue and intellect, the clue of “open academic tradition” and “ take intellect into virtue”, and takes the doctrine of Pay Equal Attention to Orthodoxies as the destination. However, Mou Zongsan’s science also exists obvious limitations, characterized by: 1, essentialism tendency; 2, lack of sympathy for the development of western philosophy of science; 3, lack of operation steps in practice. But to be fair, Mou Zongsan’s thinking of science tries to put reason in human civilization into the long river of Chinese cultural life so as to promote the rational degree of Chinese civilization, which still has realistic significance nowadays.

     

    Key words: Mou Zongsan; thinking of Science; history of philosophy of science; the Contemporary New Confucianism

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