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    2017- 敬狄:奧特加技術哲學思想解析
      作者:pst    文章來源:本站原創    點擊數:    更新時間:2017-5-18    
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    追求人類美好生活的技術——奧特加·加塞特技術哲學思想解析

     

    題目:追求人類美好生活的技術——奧特加·加塞特技術哲學思想解析

    作者:敬狄

    指導老師:王伯魯

    答辯時間:2017516

     

     

    目 錄

    引言

    第一章 生平及其哲學思想

    1.1 生平與思想特征

    1.1.1 生平

    1.1.2 思想的時代與文化特征

    1.2 哲學思想概貌

    1.2.1 對新康德主義的繼承和超越

    1.2.2 現象學和視角主義的方法

    1.2.3 人類生活與歷史的觀點

    1.2.4 實用主義和存在主義的哲學立場

    1.2.5 生活哲學與技術哲學的成就

    第二章 技術哲學的歷史定位

    2.1 人文主義技術哲學在現代性的反思中興起

    2.1.1 理解技術哲學的現代性理論范式

    2.1.2 技術哲學的歷史性缺席

    2.1.3 人文主義技術哲學的興起

    2.2 通過技術追問人是什么

    2.2.1 超越技術的人類起源神話

    2.2.2 哲學人類學思考技術的第三條路徑

    2.3 通過技術追問人的自由

    2.3.1 自由是人文主義技術哲學反思的重要主題

    2.3.2 基于自立自由觀念的樂觀技術論

    第三章 展現人類意志的技術

    3.1 技術起源于人的獨特需求與存在

    3.1.1 人與自然的獨特互動

    3.1.2 人在自然中的獨特存在

    3.1.3 技術起源于人“活得好”的需求

    3.1.4 對技術起源問題的爭論

    3.2 人在技術歷史中創造自身

    3.2.1技術史的多樣性根源于人想要“活得好”的渴望

    3.2.2 “我們的時代”的精神與危機

    3.2.3 技術進步的信念與危機

    3.3 展現人類“活得好”的意志的技術

    3.3.1 “活得好”的渴望作為技術行為的動力和目的

    3.3.2 實現“活得好”渴望的技術行為特征

    第四章 “制作”人類生活的技術

    4.1 人類生活作為技術哲學的出發點

    4.1.1 人類生活是最基本的現實

    4.1.2思考人類生活的技術人類學

    4.2 “制作”人類生活的技術活動

    4.2.1 在技術史中“制作”人類生活的三個階段

    4.2.2 作為“制作”活動的技術

    4.2.3人類生活伴隨著技術而生

    第五章 技術是人之為人善的本質的實踐活動

    5.1 對技術與人類生活“應然”關系的闡述

    5.1.1 人、技術與“活得好”的渴望的一致性

    5.1.2 “制作”生活的技術實踐是通達美好生活的德性實踐

    5.2 技術時代實現美好生活的可能性途徑

    5.2.1 技術時代大眾反叛的危機

    5.2.2 通過教育在技術時代實現美好生活的途徑

    第六章 哲學人類學視域下技術價值論的超越與局限

    6.1 解釋技術的哲學人類學路徑

    6.1.1 技術哲學分析現代技術的三條路徑

    6.1.2 哲學人類學視域下技術與人類生活關系的非決定論

    6.1.3 哲學人類學路徑的意義與局限

    6.2 追求美好生活的技術價值論

    6.2.1對技術實踐倫理價值的闡釋

    6.2.2技術實踐倫理價值論的意義

    6.2.3技術實踐倫理價值論的局限

    結語

    參考文獻

    后記

    附錄:奧特加生平與著作年表

     

    摘 要

    奧特加•加塞特是20世紀西語世界最偉大的哲學家之一,在人文主義技術哲學史上占有重要地位。為了彌補國內學術界對奧特加技術哲學思想研究方面的不足,探尋一種新的審視技術現象的視角和分析技術問題的范式,本文對奧特加的技術哲學思想進行了系統梳理和解讀。在此基礎上,還在哲學人類學視角下,給予他所構建的追求美好生活的技術哲學理論以合理的評價。

    作為人文主義技術哲學家的典型代表,奧特加真正關心的并非現代技術的本質或特征問題,他分析現代技術的最終目的是要追尋技術時代人的意義以及人在自然、社會和歷史中的位置。因此,他考察技術實踐的重點,不是作為物質生產勞動的技術實踐,而是展現人們“活得好”的意志的技術實踐;在歷史中被人們信念決定的技術實踐,以及與人之為人善的本質、與人類美好生活理想相一致的技術實踐。奧特加技術哲學真正的獨特之處在于,他從對人與技術“實然”關系的哲學人類學分析,走向了對技術與人類美好生活“應然”關系的探討。通過對技術與人類美好生活“應然”關系的追問,他的技術哲學才能超越傳統人文主義技術哲學關于現代技術的烏托邦或敵托邦的結論,使對人、技術與人類生活關系的純粹理論反思,能夠有助于人們當下的生活實踐以及追求未來的美好生活。

    從奧特加技術哲學體系的內部結構來看,首先,他從哲學人類學的視角出發,認為人之為人的獨特性就在于人總是想要“活得好”,即通過技術行為改變環境,以適應人類追求美好生活的需求。按照奧特加的觀點,“活得好”的渴望不僅是人類從事技術活動的根本動力,同時也是他從對人與技術“實然”關系的哲學人類學分析,過渡到對技術與人類美好生活“應然”關系探討的轉折點。其次,從技術價值論的角度看,奧特加關于“制作”人類生活的技術活動是實現美好生活的德性實踐的結論,必須通過哲學人類學的分析,才能找到基于人之為人本質特征的普遍依據,并由此超越技術與人類生活關系的 “手段-目的”論解釋,擺脫技術價值的多元主義和主觀主義困境。在此基礎上,奧特加還對技術時代實現美好生活的可能性途徑進行進一步探索,在一定程度上彌補了以往技術價值論在實踐層面的欠缺。

    本文分為四個部分,包括第一章對奧特加生平和哲思源流的簡單介紹;第二章在現代性的框架中明確奧特加技術哲學的歷史定位;第三、四、五章以人與技術的關系、技術與人類生活的關系為線索,系統解析了奧特加的技術哲學思想;第六章對奧特加技術哲學思想的意義和局限性進行了評價和反思。

    引言部分說明了國內外對奧特加技術哲學思想研究的基本現狀,文章的選題意義、整體思路與篇章結構。

    第一章簡要介紹了奧特加的生平及其哲學思想源流。奧特加的哲學思想是特殊的歷史時期與濃郁的伊比利亞文化交鋒的產物,只有認識奧特加生活的時代背景和他哲學思想的理論特色,才能夠更好地理解他的技術哲學思想。

    第二章在現代性的框架中明確了奧特加技術哲學的歷史定位。人是什么和人的自由問題,既是現代性的根本問題,同時也是奧特加技術哲學回應的根本問題,因而有必要在整個現代性理論的框架中來理解奧特加的技術哲學思想。具體來說,奧特加從哲學人類學的視角出發,論述了人類超越技術的起源神話,把“人是什么”這個現代性理論的根本問題轉化為“人做什么”問題,巧妙地超越了哲學人類學傳統的二元爭論。在奧特加關于人的自由是自立且面向自身的自由的論證中,我們找到了他的技術樂觀主義思想萌芽的理論根源。

    第三、四、五章是以人、技術與人類生活的關系為主線,對奧特加技術哲學理論的全面解析。第三章主要論述了奧特加關于展現人類“活得好”的意志的技術實踐活動的觀點。他從對人與自然互動中的技術實踐的分析出發,得到了技術產生并服務于人想要“活得好”的需求。對人類來說,看似多余但卻唯一必要的想要“活得好”的渴望,決定了技術在人類歷史中演變的基本面貌。在奧特加看來,由人們信念變化決定的技術史,同時也是人在技術實踐中創造自身和人類生活的歷史;立足當下,“我們的時代”的精神與對技術進步的信念,使得人性與人類生活陷入危機。

    第四章是對奧特加關于“制作”人類生活的技術實踐思想的論述。在奧特加的哲學視野中,人類生活就是我的生活,我的生活是其全部哲學的新實在,同時也是其技術哲學的出發點和最終目的。通過歷史學的方法,奧特加劃分出了人“制作”自身生活的三個歷史階段,辨析了“制作”人類生活的技術活動中的想象、規劃和實施行為,并指出現代技術活動對人的過度“去自然化”的影響。關于人如何通過技術實踐“制作”人類生活,奧特加還提出了三個具有歸納性的命題。

    第五章解析了奧特加關于技術是人之為人善的本質的實踐活動的觀點。該觀點超越了對現代技術與人類生活“是什么”關系的追問,從兩者之間“應該是什么”關系出發,面向人類未來生活而得出的積極行動的結論。奧特加基于人、技術與“活得好”的渴望的一致性理論,超越了技術與人類生活的“手段-目的”論,提出“制作”生活的技術實踐是通達美好生活的德性實踐觀點。依據大眾批判理論中精英與大眾在社會歷史中互動的基本模式,奧特加提出了他的德性精英的政治理想,在技術時代實行技術治理的現實性,以及通過教育實現美好生活理想的可能性。

    第六章是對奧特加技術價值論意義與局限性的評價和反思。奧特加技術哲學的核心主要由分析技術的哲學人類學和在技術時代追求人類美好生活的價值論構成,兩者在其技術哲學的體系中互為基礎、相互依存。從技術哲學的歷史上看,無論是分析技術的哲學人類學路徑,還是偏重把技術作為構建人類生活價值的倫理實踐觀點,奧特加的技術哲學思想在20世紀的人文主義技術哲學史上都具有一定的獨特性;同時,也與當前技術哲學前沿的發展方向相契合,能夠為大科學時代和信息時代的技術價值反思提供新的思路。此外,與同時代的人文主義技術哲學家類似,奧特加對技術問題的諸多思考,始終無法擺脫時代的束縛和認識論上的局限。

     

    關鍵詞:奧特加·加塞特,美好生活,技術哲學

     

    Abstract

    One of the greatest Spanish philosopher, José Ortega y Gasset(1883-1955), whose philosophy of technology would not be so familiar to Chinese academics, occupies an important position in the history of humanities philosophy of technology in 20 century. This dissertation is a study of Ortega’s philosophy of technology, providing us a new viewing perspective on modern technology, and improving the research of the history of philosophy of technology in domestic field.

     

    The fundamental question of Ortega’s philosophy of technology is not the question of modern technology, but the question of the moderns. That is the reason why his research of technology practice activities is not on the aspect of material production labor, but on aspects of manifesting human will of “to live well”, being very influential by beliefs, and corresponding to ideals of good life. The uniqueness of Ortega’s philosophy of technology is that he started from the anthropological analysis of what “is” the relationship between human and technology, and went to ethical analysis of what "should be" the relationship between technology and human life. Thus, his discussion of the relationship between technology and human life could go beyond the controversial conclusion of technological utopia or dystopia, and benefit to the human practice.

     

    On the structure of Ortega’s philosophy of technology, first, he analyzes the uniqueness of human being from the philosophical anthropology point of view. He argues that human desires more than “live” (el estar) in biological sense, he always demands “to live well” (el bienestar), as well as realizes it with technological activities. In other words, the necessity “to live well” is a fundamental motive force for human to do technological activities. The demand “to live well” is also a crucial idea of how Ortega’s analysis could from the anthropological analysis of what “is” the relationship between human and technology, to the ethical analysis of what "should be" the relationship between technology and human life. Second, Ortega argues that technological activity to “make” human life is a virtue practice to realize good life. Because of this novel idea, Ortega could interpret the relationship between technology and human life beyond the classical interpretation of the theory of the relationship between means and purpose. It could avoid being in dilemma of Subjectivism and Pluralism. Moreover, Ortega further explores those possibilities to realize good life in the age of technology. In some sense, this practical exploration could cover the shortage of traditional discussion of the value of technology.

     

    There are four basic parts of this dissertation. Part one, is chapter one which briefly introduces Ortega’s lifetime and theoretical sources of his philosophical thinking. Part two, is chapter two which analyzes the historical position of Ortega’s philosophy of technology in the theoretical framework of modernity. Part three, including chapter three, four and five, is the systemic analysis of Ortega’s philosophy of technology. Part four, chapter six is an evaluation of those theoretical significance and limitations in Ortega’s philosophy of technology.

     

    Specifically, the Forward, it briefly describes the current study situation of Ortega’s philosophy of technology. And it sketches out the research content and the research structure of this dissertation.

     

    Chapter one introduces the biography of Ortega and his philosophical thinking sources. Generally, his philosophy was born in the context of historical interactions between the particular era and the culture of Iberian Peninsula. Knowing about the context of the time and the culture could benefit our understanding of Ortega’s philosophy of technology.

     

    Chapter two analyzes the historical position of Ortega’s philosophy of technology in the theoretical framework of modernity. “What is human?” is the fundamental question in Ortega’s philosophy of technology, as well as the essential issue of modernity. From this, it is necessary to study Ortega’s philosophy of technology in the theoretical framework of modernity. About the question of “what is human?” there is a traditional argument in philosophical anthropology, homo faber and animal rationale. For Ortega, Man, not only question on “what he is”or “what he has”, and also “what he does”. He goes beyond the arguing between homo faber and animal rationale, starting his philosophy of technology from human nature to human life. Moreover, we find the theoretical source of Ortega’s technology optimism from his arguments of freedom.

     

    Chapter three, four and five are the systemic analysis of Ortega’s philosophy of technology. Chapter three mainly states Ortega’s idea of technological activity which shows the will “to live well”. Specifically, from the interaction between human and nature point of view, technology born in and served the basic demand “to live well”, at the same time, the demand “to live well” shapes the history of technology. For Ortega, the history of technology which is determined by human beliefs is also the history of self-creative human life. In the current situation, Zeitgeist and our belief in technical progress, produce some crisis in humanity and also in our daily life.

     

    Chapter four mainly states Ortega’s idea of technological activities which “create” human life. Human life or my life is the new entity in Ortega’s philosophy, especially in philosophy of technology. From the history point of view, Ortega divides the historical evolution of technology into three stages, analyzes notions of actions in technological activities, points out the phenomena of human “de-naturalized” in modern technological society.

     

    Chapter five interprets Ortega’s idea of technological activity which is a virtue practice of human life. This idea makes Ortega’s analysis shift from the anthropological analysis of what “is” the relationship between human and technology, to the ethical analysis of what "should be" the relationship between technology and human life. In addition, based on the analysis of the historical interaction between the elite and the mass, Ortega proposes his political ideal of moral elite administration, justifies the feasibility of technocracy, and attempts to figure out the possibility of realizing good life in technological age.

     

    Chapter six is an evaluation of those theoretical significance and limitations of Ortega’s philosophy of technology. The analytic perspective of philosophical anthropology and the value theory of technology are two crucial parts of Ortega’s philosophy of technology. Generally, Ortega’s philosophy of technology has its own theoretical unique feature in the history of humanities philosophy of technology in 20 century. It could inspire our nowadays research in philosophy of technology, but it still has some historical limitations and cognitive limitations.  


    Key words: Ortega y Gasset, Good life, Philosophy of technology

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