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    [190606 ]科技哲學前沿18講:Amery-海灣國家水安全問題
      作者:pst    文章來源:本站原創    點擊數:    更新時間:2019-6-11    
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    201966日上午,中國人民大學哲學院科技哲學教研室主辦的第18當代科技哲學前沿系列講座在人文樓600會議室舉行。主講人為:科羅拉多礦業學院(Colorado School of Mines)哲學系主任Hussein A. Amery,講題為拉伯海灣國家的水安全威脅問題”(Threats to Water Security in the Arab Gulf States)。主持人為科技哲學教研室劉永謀教授,評議人為中國人民大學教授Carl Mitcham先生、滕菲博士后。參與講座的還有科技哲學教研室劉勁楊教授,北京工業大學張恒力副教授等校內外師生20余人。本次講座主要環節包括,主講、評議,提問三個階段,講座精彩紛呈,討論熱烈。

    Amery教授本次講座的主要內容是其2015年出版的專著《Arab Water Security》中的一部分觀點。主要是對于阿拉伯海灣國家的水安全問題的現狀,成因以及解決方法的分析。Amery教授首先通過展示水安全示意圖,說明了許多阿拉伯海灣國家水安全都處于極度風險狀態的現狀,湖水越來越少,很多國家甚至處于極度缺水的狀態。隨后Amery教授指出水安全問題會對社會產生巨大的威脅,如果我們沒有水我們將面臨許多問題。對水安全的威脅主要來自四個方面,第一是自然方面的影響,水的可用性及其分布以及自然災害都會對水安全造成一定程度的威脅,第二是經濟:個人收入和負擔能力以及國家財富也是一個威脅;第三是人類自身,來自供應、社會和平和韌性的威脅;第四是技術方面的威脅,具體包括基礎社會設施的彈性,高新技術,技術故障和技術質量的問題。

    Amery教授認為,水安全問題之所以十分需要關注和亟待解決是因為長期以來,人們就一直認為惡劣的天氣會導致經濟動蕩,社會動亂,甚至內戰,而水安全作為一個典型問題往往會加劇政治的不穩定。同時,水安全這種環境壓力會放大不安全感,由于經濟發展和人類生存對社會資源的需求不斷增加,而長期超采地下水會對地面和地表水造成污染,氣候變化會引起降水不可預測,造成干旱,以上種種就會造成公眾對于國家和政府的不信任,從而能夠滿足水需求的政治力量就會在政治競爭中取得優勢。

    隨后,Amery教授舉例說明了解決海灣國家水安全問題的方法。系統性方法主要通過兩個途徑解決問題,第一是生產可用淡水,通過海水淡化和處理廢水來實現;第二是節約用水,通過高效灌溉和外源農業來實現。這一方法需要依賴自然降水和區域合作,由于自然的不穩定以及操作過程中的管理疏忽,這一方法走向失敗。另一種方法是利亞德的海水淡化廠的方法,但是這種方法也面臨著巨大的威脅,一旦工廠發生故障,整個水資源供應就會斷裂。因此Amery教授認為以上兩種方法都不能完全解決水安全問題。應該加強政府的責任,制定應急計劃,做好事前計劃,包括預防,緩解,相應,復蘇,應對突發情況的處理方法。由此來解決水安全問題。

    最后,Amery教授認為阿拉伯海灣國家的水安全問題可以通過兩項措施加強解決,一是減輕潛在的暴力誘因,如當地社會的不滿情緒,二是通過用水需求管理節約用水。如采用外源水密集型農業,使用回收污水等。

    在評論環節中,評議人Mitcham教授首先感謝了Amery教授的演講,認為他的演講發人深省。Mitcham教授指出科威特,卡塔爾,阿拉伯聯合酋長國和阿曼四個波斯灣國家日益嚴重的淡水供應問題凸顯了一個全球性問題。由于地區發展,人口增加和消費模式的變化,對淡水的需求越來越多,氣候變化,糟糕的公共政策和恐怖主義威脅增加了對水安全的威脅,這些都是全球性的挑戰。這些問題在這四個小威權國家中沒有被處理的很好,這對于更強大和更復雜的政府處理這些問題來說并不是一個好的基礎。Mitcham教授指出,用他的一位美國同事的話來說“愚蠢永遠不應該被低估為人類事務的原因”。就此,Mitcham教授提出問題:海灣國家的領導人和公眾對于現狀了解多少?在學校中是否有相關的課程幫助大家了解現狀的嚴重性?此外,政府是否采取了具體的措施來解決海平面上升對于海岸邊海水淡化廠造成的威脅。

    評議人滕菲博士后指出水危機是中東地區發展穩定面臨的核心挑戰,水安全不僅僅是解決水資源短缺的問題。這關乎的利益遠遠超出了水本身。氣候變化對水資源的問題帶來了更加復雜的挑戰,這就需要我們采取更加緊急的行動,以及更明智地分配和使用水資源。因此,在分配公正的問題上,中東的水危機或多或少有點像小規模的氣候變化。然而,在現實問題中,認識到什么是不公正往往比認識到什么是正義更容易。關于水的正義。傳統上,它往往被放在環境正義的框架內理解。然而,這樣的概念受到了批評,因為它忽視了更大的社會背景,文化或宗教因素,陷入了絕對的平等主義。由此,滕菲提出了三個問題,中東關于水危機的討論中,分配正義是否占有總要的地位?什么是技術和社會彈性供水系統?對水管理和權力進行治理時,其工作原理如何,是否具有道德基礎?

     Amery教授感謝了兩位評議人的評論并進行了簡短的回應。Amery教授指出他并不知道目前在阿拉伯地區有相關現狀教育的課程,也沒有對于海平面上升的具體討論。他十分同意在處理水威脅的問題中,缺乏相關知識是一個主要問題。

    在自由討論中,劉勁楊老師認為Amery教授的講座對中國當下的水資源問題也很有啟發,他主要提的問題是:一方面科技可以將讓沙漠開出美麗的花,讓人類享受越來越舒適的生活;另一方面也會讓湖泊死亡,造成生存困境,那么是否存在某種技術的方法或策略能帶來根本解決?人類文化和生活方式的改變是否才是最終解決之道?李泓貝同學提出了在應對水安全威脅問題時,除了考慮政府的行動外,個人應發揮什么樣的作用?劉永謀老師對本講進行了總結,認為Amery教授的講座非常有啟發,中國的研究視野很少涉及阿拉伯海灣國家和拉美非洲等地區,Amery教授的演講讓我們開闊了視野,同時,中國也面臨著水安全問題,對于海灣國家的研究對于中國問題的研究也很有借鑒意義。Amery教授對上述問題一一做出了回應,講座在熱烈的討論氛圍結束。

     

                                                              (供稿:張茂婷)

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