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      您現在的位置: 科學技術哲學專業網 >> 人大科哲 >> 教研室 >> 通知公告 >> 正文
    科哲學位論文撰寫要求
      作者:pst    文章來源:本站原創    點擊數:    更新時間:2012-3-6    
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    一、形式要求

    學位論文是嚴格的學術論文,學術論文與一般報告、文章在形式上的重要區別是,要言之有據。“據”是指既要有觀點與思想的確切出處,還要有邏輯自洽的理論論證。

    1、誠實注明文獻出處

    誠實是學術的根基。學術論文的首要條件是論文作者必須非常誠實地嚴格區分,哪些觀點和材料是自己的,哪些是別人的。一篇學位論文中的重要觀點、概念、理論都要有確切出處,屬于論文作者自己獨創的,也須以一定形式表明。對于實證性的學位論文來說,所有的數據必須注明真實來源,論文作者的調查也須注明。這項工作的學術意義在于體現學術的精神,充分尊重前行于自己的研究者所做的貢獻,同時為讀者提供正確的學術研究背景文獻,以推進學術的前進。

    2、嚴格區分不同引注規范

    學術論術會以不同方式來注明文獻的出處,務必注意它們在形式、使用上的不同。直引、間引、轉引、注釋是學術論文采用的主要形式,在使用時注意以下原則。

    1) 引注的總體原則

    ——凡觀點、文字確實來自他人,就必須采用引注。

    ——引用量適度。不可為引注而引注,盲目堆砌過多的沒必要的引注。在國外學術評價中,一般認為引用他人觀點與材料的數量不應超過30%,完全相同的引文數量目前規定須少于10%,大段大段的引用一定要慎用。

    ——優先使用“直引”,其次“間引”,迫不得已再用“轉引”。這是對原文作者的高度負責的做法,并為讀者提供進一步研究文獻路徑。注釋則是對相關文字觀點的補充說明。

    ——凡引注必須真實可靠,絕不能偽引,不可以間引代替直引,或以轉引代替間引與直引,最大限度的避免技術性錯誤。

    2) 直接引注

    ——凡采用直接引注者,每個文字與標點均需與原文一致,任何關鍵詞決不能錯;

    ——凡涉及原文特有的提法,概念與表述,均需加引號;

    ——凡使用原文超過一句完整話或完整觀點的,均需采有直接引注。

    3) 間接引注

    ——只有在不便直接引注,或原文觀點表述不夠精煉時,才被迫使用間接引注,絕不可濫用,且絕不可歪曲原文觀點。

    ——如果是自己對原文的理解,就應直接說明是自己的分析,例:“本文認為勞斯實際上是......”然后再加注釋說明勞斯的相關觀點的出處和其他理解;

    ——間接引注是表示對原作者的學術尊重,不可斷章取義

    4) 轉引

    ——無法找到一手文獻時被迫使用;

    ——轉引一定要列出兩個出處,一個是引文的原始出處,另一個是引文出處,例,勞斯引用了一句波普爾的話,但我們又找不波普爾的原始文獻,這時就應采用轉引:例:Poplaropen universe,1967,pp53 / 轉引自:勞斯,《知識與權力》,2003,北京大學出版社,頁。

    ——不可以間引、直引代替轉引,為了圖省事直接使用二手文獻中的引文,不對照一手文獻出處,結果以訛傳訛。合格的博士論文應以一手文獻觀點作為主要來源,迫不得已才會采用二手文獻。

    5) 注釋

    ——注釋的主要功能在于對正文中的觀點與文字做進一步的說明,是對正文提供更多角度的思考與補充。

    ——注釋既可以是論文作者對正文觀點的說明,也可以是論文作者引其他研究者的觀點來反對或支持正文中的觀點與材料。

    3、規范樣式

    1)引注規范

    參看人大研究生手冊的相關規定,以下舉兩例。

    巴里·巴恩斯,大衛·布魯爾,約翰·亨利,《科學知識:一種社會學分析》,邢冬梅,蔡仲譯,南京:南京大學出版社,2004年,4頁。

    劉珺珺,《科學社會學的人類學轉向和科學技術人類學》,自然辯證法通訊,1998年第1期, 24-28頁。

    2)關鍵譯名加原文注

    學術論文中的關鍵術語和關鍵人名,常常會由于不同的譯名產生歧義,因此最好能同時加英文或其他語種的注明。

    例:還原(reduction, 還原論(reductionism

    3)圖表規范

    所有圖表,均應按章編號、命名,并在正文中提及。

     1-1 技術創新的演進模式  2-1 科學與技術的比較

    4)論文排版樣式

     見研院規定:http://grs.ruc.edu.cn/shownews.asp?newsid=84

     

    二、學術總體要求

    博士論文在內容上應是一篇具有論證性、原創性、前沿性學術論文,字數要求10萬字以上。碩士論文應是一篇符合學術規范,有獨立理論思考深度的學術論文,字數要求3萬字以上。

    1、論證性

    學術論文所有觀點必須是依據核心問題論證得出結論,而不是簡單的材料與觀點匯總。由于科技哲學研究域的發散性,特別是一些實證性或資料性比較多的博士論文容易陷入低層次的材料匯編與觀點匯總中。要超越這一點,必須要有與論文主題密切相關理論支撐和內在嚴密的邏輯框架。這種論證精神與論證能力是學術論文占據理論制高點的基礎。合格的博士論文必須要有突出的核心主題、嚴密的論證框架、細致的論證分析及精準的概念界定。

    2、原創性

    博士論文還必須要有原創性的學術貢獻。一定不是既有觀點的匯編,要有創造性的新的分析與新論證,否則論文的價值就大打折扣了。這是學術殘酷之處,必須要有自己說的東西,否則這篇論文不做也罷。這就對博士論文的選題提出了很高的要求,一定要選自己能做,而且還是自己有可能取得新認識的方向。碩士論文比較強調理論知識的積累,但也必須要有自己獨立的理論思考,述評類論文,不僅要述還在于評。

    在形式上,論文作者自己的分析論證文字量應超過整篇論文的50%以上,按研院要求,完全相同的引用文字數量不能超過論文文字總數的10% (重復率依據查重軟件計算)。

    3、前沿性

    博士論文應在本領域具有前沿性、領先性,要充分吸引國內外學者在本領域的研究成果。對于涉及西方學者的論題,外文文獻必須要有,并且要達到一定的量。只有確確實實跟蹤前沿,博士論文才算合格,也才能為自己未來的學術事業奠定堅實根基。

     

     

     

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