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    凃明君 張志明:治理理論的兩大干流及其共同源頭
      作者:凃明君    文章來源:原載《中國社會科學報》    點擊數:    更新時間:2018-3-14    
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         1985年,美國社會學家J.C.亞歷山大在《新功能主義》中宣稱:“我們正在進入一個新的歷史時期。新的政治結構已經可見端倪。……那些一向處于邊緣的運動和集團正取得中心地位。”1990年前后,治理興起,但似乎很少有人在分析治理的理論淵源時提到功能主義及其社會系統論基礎——人們更喜歡將之歸功于福利國家的失敗、市場失敗、新公共管理運動等等更表淺的原因。這種現象在近幾年終于有所改變,一些學者在尋找“一般(general)治理理論”或“一般治理模式”的過程中,不約而同地回到了功能主義,回到了社會系統論。這似乎表明,社會系統理論就是具有一般性和統合性的治理理論基礎。

    一、治理理論的兩本新手冊

    經過約30年發展,治理理論愈發豐富:2010年,知名學術出版機構賽奇邀請加州大學伯克利分校政治科學系的馬克.貝佛領銜,召集了國際上39位權威專家匯編出版《賽奇治理手冊》(The SAGE Handbook of GovernanceBevir2010),整理出網絡政策理論、理性選擇理論、解釋理論、組織理論、制度理論、系統理論、元治理、國家-社會關系、政策工具與治理、發展理論和治理測評等11種理論。多則多矣,卻給人以雜亂之感。比如,解釋理論和系統理論更像是哲學而不像是“治理理論”,而理性選擇理論和發展理論等更像是治理理論的基礎,而不“直接”就是治理理論。

    6年后,另一知名學術出版機構愛德華-埃爾加邀請了貝佛的同事克里斯托弗.安塞爾和雅克布.托芬擔當主編,匯聚全球63位作者編寫出版《治理理論手冊》(Handbook on Theories of GovernanceAnsell & Torfing2016),將治理理論細分為理論基礎、理論分析模型和治理形式三類:如將集體行動理論、組織理論、公共管理理論、規劃理論、國家理論、民主理論、公法與監管理論、發展理論、國際關系理論等作為治理的9種理論基礎,將商談理論、制度理論、公共選擇理論等作為10種理論分析模型,將民主網絡治理、合作治理和元治理等作為11種治理方式;該書還將系統控制(steering)和學習等作為11種基本概念。這表明,國際學術界已經初步意識到:要想對治理理論有一個相對清晰的認識,必須在洞察其內在關聯的基礎上,對各種治理理論進行分類、分層。這是第一步。

    二、兩種最新的“一般”治理理論(模式)

    要想走出治理理論的“復雜叢林”,還必須將理論基礎進一步提煉濃縮,找到更具基礎性、總括性、統合性的理論,由此出發才能發現主要線索,尋找到正確的出路。在這條探求基礎之基礎的道路上,貝佛用《一種治理理論》(A Theory of GovernanceBevir2013)表明他依然走在前列。該書從后預設主義(postfoundationalism,一譯后基礎主義)的意義整體論出發,用歷史主義、建構主義去批評理性的、正式的機制、制度和規范,用分化理論(Decentered theory,一譯去中心化理論)的多元性、隨機性、敘事性和譜系性來批判實證主義現代治理的物理化和形式化。上述哲學引導貝佛將國族(民族國家)、網絡、市場以及由它們形成的(聯邦)國家統統都看成社會組織,治理于是就成為人的有意義的活動的敘事,是一種語言游戲、表演(實踐)游戲、管理游戲,具有實踐的(practices)而非制度的(institutions)型式( patterns)。公共組織(行為)從官僚政府轉向網絡和市場,國家權力于是分散在空間和功能上不同的網絡之中,這導致治理型式日益多元、隨機、復雜。系統治理可以通過對話、參與、協商共識、授權和社會包容應對這種復雜性,其具體方法,就是通過政策級聯(policy cascade)形成系統性的交疊制度,使網絡社會保持有效結構。雖然我們不認同貝佛站在后現代主義的解釋學立場上指責治理實踐的實證主義和工具論傾向,但他由哲學到社會再到政治,由社會觀到制度主義的分析路徑值得關注,其中對理想化的系統治理理想的現實狀況分析也頗有價值。貝佛宣稱該書用整體意義論構建了“一般(general)治理理論”,在我們看來是從歷史人文主義走向了系統治理。

    另外一條指向社會系統理論的路徑,是理性選擇的新制度主義。比如,以《政府未來的治理模式》(Peters1996)和《沒有政府的治理?》(Peters & Pierre1998)享譽治理學界的彼得斯和皮埃爾,在經過《新制度主義:政治學中的制度理論》(Peters2011)的三版修訂后,用《比較治理》(Comparative Governance: Rediscovering the Functional Dimension of Governing, Peters & Pierre2016)宣布要以系統治理回歸帕森斯(Parsons1975)和默頓(Merton1957)的功能主義。與帕森斯注重體制性結構的、相對僵化死板的規定性功能(Stipulated Functions)相比,彼得斯和皮埃爾將核心放在了過程上,尤其是組織的決策過程、決策功能,這就使得“系統性治理功能,應急性(Emergent Functions)功能具有動態性,代表著政治系統的自適應過程”。這就回到了西蒙的組織系統論。而我們知道,西蒙深受巴納德社會系統理論影響。雖然彼得斯等站在偏經驗主義和工具理性立場上對功能主義和系統治理的分析相對簡單和粗糙,但他通過交互治理研究回到社會系統論值得肯定。彼得斯和皮埃爾宣稱從系統性的功能主義出發構建了“一般治理模式”,在我們看來是從理性實證主義走向了系統治理。

    三、治理理論的兩條主要線索及其共同基礎

    兩種構建一般性治理理論的雄心,分別來自歷史人文主義和理性實證主義兩個不同的方向,最后都回歸到了社會系統理論。這背后隱藏著的兩條主要線索,代表治理理論的兩大干流,值得我們認真梳理。

     

    第一條是關乎治理基本社會觀念的社會系統理論,其根源可追溯到馬克思、齊美爾和滕尼斯社會結構論;其直接起點是頗受帕累托、涂爾干和韋伯影響的帕森斯(1937/1955)結構-功能主義社會系統論,中間經過默頓和塞爾茲尼克(Selznick1957)等關心社會心理層面的自然系統視角的組織理論(Scott2007)的鋪展,目前對治理理論影響最大的是盧曼功能-結構主義系統論(Luhmann1964/1984)——庫伊曼社會動態系統治理(Kooiman1993/2003)和梅茨將治理歸結為自治的調整和控制機制(Mayntz1993/2004)等均受盧曼自我復制思想啟發。這條系統社會觀的主線還勾連著羅茨(Rhodes 1996)自組織網絡公共行為的程序性新形式,希克斯(Hicks2002)整體治理,奧斯本(Osborn 2010)和摩根(Morgan 2015)之超越新公共管理的新公共治理。泰思曼等將復雜系統理論對治理觀的影響歸結為非線性動力學、自組織和合作進化(Teisman Buuren & Gerrits2009),較為系統地闡述了復雜性研究與治理理論的關系,不足之處在于受后現代主義影響而忽視動態穩定和本征機制等系統論精義,偏重分化和自組織,將自由主義理想化。

     

    第二條干流是在經濟和政治學界影響很大的理性選擇學派,其間接源頭是深受帕累托《普通社會學》和亨德森內穩態系統觀影響,受帕森斯社會行動研究影響的巴納德(Barnard1938),其核心思想是西蒙自適應系統觀。西蒙受巴納德啟發提出有限理性滿意決策與選擇理論(1945/1997),這一理性系統視角被斯科特(2007)稱為組織理論基石;其后繼者馬奇和奧爾森《制度新探》(March & Olsen 1989)在借鑒威廉姆森(1985)交易成本學的基礎上,對復雜決策過程所做的制度主義闡釋,是治理理論興起的重要標志;威廉姆森《治理機制》(Williamson 1995)深化、細化了治理理論研究。奧斯特羅姆(Ostrom1990)關于集體行動制度的實證分析和彼得斯(2001)的彈性化交互治理機制亦屬這一治理方法論行列。

    以上兩大干流均以帕森斯和巴納德社會系統理論發端,交疊發展演變,最終都落腳到新制度主義的機制研究。抓住社會系統理論及其派生的理性選擇理論這兩條主線,我們就從社會觀和方法論上基本厘清了治理理論形成和發展的主要脈絡,并且能夠將組織理論、集體行動理論、新制度主義、商談理論、網絡政策、合作治理和其他理論勾連而成治理理論的整體體系。社會系統理論,是理解治理及其制度的關鍵,是治理最主要的、最具統合性的理論基礎。

     

    (本文簡版以《治理理論研究的兩種進路》發表于《中國社會科學報》、《中國社會科學網》2018-03-07

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